Volda-Griffith Austral-Asian Study Immersion Program 2010 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Volda griffith austral asian study immersion program 2010 l.jpg
Download
1 / 147

  • 298 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: Travel / Places

Volda-Griffith Austral-Asian Study Immersion Program 2010. An Overview of Asia Wayne Muller Griffith University 13 th September 2010. Presentation Structure. Five Sections: (1) “Defining ‘Asia’, and issues of cultural perspective.”

Related searches for Volda-Griffith Austral-Asian Study Immersion Program 2010

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Volda-Griffith Austral-Asian Study Immersion Program 2010

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Volda griffith austral asian study immersion program 2010 l.jpg

Volda-Griffith Austral-Asian Study Immersion Program 2010

  • An Overview of Asia

  • Wayne Muller

  • Griffith University

  • 13th September 2010


Presentation structure l.jpg

Presentation Structure

  • Five Sections:

    (1) “Defining ‘Asia’, and issues of cultural perspective.”

    (2) Geography, demography ethnography, and ecological aspects of ‘Asia’.

    (3) The traditional legacies of Asia.

    (4) Colonialism, imperialism and nationalism in Asia.

    (5) The characteristics of modernisation and globalisation in Asia.


Section 1 l.jpg

Section 1

  • “Defining ‘Asia’, and issues of cultural perspective.”


Section structure l.jpg

Section Structure

  • (1) Defining “Asia” geographically- the concept of “many Asias”.

  • (2) Defining “Asia” historically- the concept of “Orientalism”.

  • (3) Defining “Asia”- dealing with stereotypes.

  • (4) The concept of “cultural perspective”.

  • (5) Some commonly claimed “Asian perspectives/ values”.

  • (6) “Asian perceptions” of Australia.


1 defining asia geographically the concept of many asias l.jpg

(1) Defining “Asia” geographically- the concept of “many Asias”.

  • (1) Boundaries of Asia- clear cut and blurred?


Slide7 l.jpg

  • (2) Enormity/ diversity of Asia.

  • Knight Reading 1


Slide9 l.jpg

  • (3) Sub regions of Asia.


Slide11 l.jpg

  • (4) Geographical reality or term of convenience?


Slide13 l.jpg

  • (5) “Many Asias”-

    • Diversity within Asia and within Asian countries

    • Change and the modernisation/ westernisation debate


2 defining asia historically the concept of orientalism l.jpg

(2) Defining “Asia” historically- the concept of “Orientalism”.

  • (A) Edward Said’s Thesis:

  • “The West defined the East in order to colonise and dominate it.”


Slide15 l.jpg

  • (B) Some definitions of “Orientalism”

  • (1) ".........The European vision of all Eastern peoples as exotic, remote, inferior, and subject to the political, military, economic, cultural, and sexual dominance of the west".(Broinowski:1992:2)

  • (Some Australian manifestations of “Orientalism”- Paranoia/ White Australia/ racist cartoons.)


Slide16 l.jpg

  • (2) "......that powerful past image of Asia as poor, military, threatening and exotic has been replaced by a new, just as simple yet ambivalent image of Asia as rich (and also poor). An Asia beckoning us simultaneously with economic opportunities; and still exotic".(Viviani:1990:2)


Slide17 l.jpg

  • (3) "The east contemplated the forest; the west counted the trees. ...................The mind that knows the trees andthe forest is a new mind".(Ferguson:1987:87)


3 defining asia dealing with stereotypes l.jpg

(3) Defining “Asia”- dealing with stereotypes

  • (1) Stereotypes- the need to generalise?

  • (2) Classifying stereotypes, for example:

    • Romantic stereotypes

    • Repugnant stereotypes

    • Realistic stereotypes( de Souza 1992: 6)

  • (3) Analysing and challenging stereotypes.

    • Eg “All Asians look alike”.


4 the concept of cultural perspective l.jpg

(4) The concept of “cultural perspective”.

  • Concepts of 'World View'/ Core Values/ Attitudes/ Perceptions/ etc

  • Importance of 'Reality Constructors'

  • Ethnocentrism: The subjectivity of 'Common Sense‘ (eg the grasshopper)

  • The Emic and the Etic Perspectives *****


Slide20 l.jpg

  • Strengths, weaknesses and paradoxes in all societies

  • Problem of making moral judgments from our perspective- “In order to know the other, one must other the known.”

  • “Cultural Relativism” versus “Moral Relativism” (Evans: Reading 2)

  • Case study of “Education” from multiple perspectives (Milner and Quilty: Reading 3)


4 the concept of cultural perspective some examples l.jpg

(4) The concept of “cultural perspective”- some examples.

  • (1)"I think, therefore I am".

    • (Individualism) western?

  • (2)”I am because we are and we are because I am".

    • (Group oriented) Oriental? Traditional?

  • Or

  • (1)Western dichotomy.

    • E.G. Male......................Female

  • (2)Eastern dualism/ holism.

    • E.G. Yang......................Yin


5 some commonly claimed asian perspectives values l.jpg

(5) Some commonly claimed “Asian perspectives/ values”.

  • (1) “The Good Society”

  • Harmony/ order

    • (Contrasted with Western notions of “freedom”)

  • Hierarchy

    • (Contrasted with Western notions of “egalitarianism”)

    • within Asia

    • within one society

    • gender based

    • sources of the concept


Slide24 l.jpg

  • Group identity

    • (Contrasted with Western individualism)

  • "Strong" leadership

    • (Contrasted with Western aversion to“authoritarianism”)

  • Respect

    • (Knowing one's proper place)


5 some commonly claimed asian perspectives values continued l.jpg

5) Some commonly claimed “Asian perspectives/ values” (continued).

  • (2)“Behaviour Patterns”

  • Belief systems including a diversity of religions (c.f. “secular” Australia)

  • Core values of honour, face and shame

  • Formality and protocol

  • Hiding one's feelings

  • Don't give offence

  • Consensus decision making

  • Meeting deadlines


6 asian perceptions of australia l.jpg

(6) “Asian perceptions” of Australia.

  • Knowledge limitations (e.g. textbook stereotypes: the sheep farm, the beach and the tourist resort; media representations)

  • Lifestyle stereotypes (e.g. outdoors, beach, sport, BBQs)

  • Stereotypes of 'national characteristics' (e.g. friendly, relaxed, lazy, etc.)

  • Racism ('White Australia')


6 asian perceptions of australia continued l.jpg

(6) “Asian perceptions” of Australia (continued).

  • Our openness, directness and criticism of some Asian issues (e.g. human rights) are seen as rudeness and “white arrogance”.

  • Culturally immature

  • Puzzled by our 'national identity':-the flag and the head of state

  • Weak commitment to citizenship

  • Problems in business dealings (e.g. meeting deadlines)

  • A “mine” and a “beach”


Section 2 geography demography ethnography and ecological aspects of asia l.jpg

Section 2: Geography, demography ethnography, and ecological aspects of ‘Asia’


Geography l.jpg

GEOGRAPHY

  • Size and diversity

  • Physical characteristics/ plate tectonics

  • Regionalism

    • Mainland Asia/ peninsula Asia/ archipelago Asia

    • Rural Asia/ urban Asia

    • Desert Asia (hot and cold)/ equatorial Asia/ tropical Asia


Geography continued l.jpg

GEOGRAPHY (Continued)

  • The characteristics and importance of 'monsoon Asia’

  • Riverine and coastal geographies

  • Hydro culture/ rice culture

  • Asia and 'natural disasters'


Slide37 l.jpg

  • The characteristics and importance of 'monsoon Asia’


Slide41 l.jpg

  • Riverine and coastal geographies


Slide45 l.jpg

  • Hydro culture/ rice culture


Slide47 l.jpg

  • Asia and 'natural disasters'


Indian ocean earthquake and tsunami 26 th december 2004 l.jpg

Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami 26th December 2004


Tsunami damage sumatra l.jpg

Tsunami Damage Sumatra


Pakistan floods august september 2010 l.jpg

Pakistan Floods August-September 2010


Pakistan floods august september 201051 l.jpg

Pakistan Floods August-September 2010


Pakistan floods august september 201052 l.jpg

Pakistan Floods August-September 2010


Pakistan floods august september 201053 l.jpg

Pakistan Floods August-September 2010


Demography l.jpg

DEMOGRAPHY

  • (Reading 4: Mackerras Chapter 35)

  • Population distribution/ density/ totals

  • Various demographic indicators

  • Culturally based attitudes to reproduction and parenting:

    • Children as a 'resource'

    • The 'male child', etc.


Demography continued l.jpg

DEMOGRAPHY (Continued)

  • Population growth rates

    • Huge variations

  • Population control measures

    • Family planning/ abortion/ infanticide

  • Government demographic policies

    • China's 'one child policy'

    • Singapore's 'marriage policy', etc.


  • Demography continued56 l.jpg

    DEMOGRAPHY (Continued)

    • Population mobility

    • (A) International migration

      • Within Asia eg “Nanyang”

      • Beyond Asia, including Australia

      • (Immigration debate and refugees)

  • (B) Internal migration

    • (1) Urbanisation/ city growth/ urban problems.

      • eg Bangkok, Seoul

    • (2) Government initiated migration programs:

      • China's 'special economic zones’

      • Indonesia's transmigration program


  • Ethnography l.jpg

    ETHNOGRAPHY


    Ethnography58 l.jpg

    ETHNOGRAPHY

    • Classification- ethnic and linguistic criteria

    • Han/ “non Han”/ Mongoloid/ Indo-Aryan/ Dravidian/ Malay/ Melanesian/ Micronesian/ etc


    Ethnography continued l.jpg

    ETHNOGRAPHY (continued)

    • Intra-Asian migrations

    • Overseas Chinese- 'nanyang‘

    • Multi-racial societies

    • Indigenous minorities

      • Ainu/ non-Han Chinese/ Dyaks/ people of Irian Jaya/ etc


    Ethnography continued71 l.jpg

    ETHNOGRAPHY (Continued)

    • Intra-Asian racism

    • Ethnicity and nationalism


    Environment l.jpg

    ENVIRONMENT

    • Asia as a sub-set of global environmental issues and debates:

      • “People overpopulation” and “consumption overpopulation”

  • Asia in the context of first world/ third world environmental controversies:

    • The nexus between development and environmental issues; the green revolution


  • Environment continued l.jpg

    ENVIRONMENT (Continued)

    • Asian 'attitudes' to the environment- can we generalise?

    • The environmental 'harmony' of hydro culture/ slash and burn?

    • Urban environmental issues in Asia

    • A 'national case study' eg. Japan, Malaysia


    Environment continued74 l.jpg

    ENVIRONMENT (Continued)

    • Specific environmental issues:

      • Endangered species- e.g. Bengal tiger, panda

      • Rain forest extinction- e.g. logging in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, 1997 forest fires

      • Water management issues, including dams- e.g. the three gorges dam, dams and water sharing of the Mekong

      • Corporate irresponsibility- e.g. Minamata disease, Bhopal

      • Land degradation- e.g. hillside farming

      • Urban problems- e.g. Bangkok traffic, smoky mountain in Manila, air pollution in Chinese cities, etc.

      • Displacement of traditional peoples by forestry, mining, dams, tourism, etc.


    Section 3 the traditional legacies of asia l.jpg

    Section 3: The Traditional Legacies of Asia


    Introductory points l.jpg

    Introductory Points

    • Using “reason” or “faith” as the catalyst for analysis?

    • Are “spirituality” and “being religious” synonymous?

    • The subjective circumstances of the acquisition of a belief system?

    • Equal validity and subjectivity of all belief systems and religions? An example of cultural relativism.

    • “Orthodox teaching” versus “actual practices”

    • “Moderates” and “fundamentalists”


    Hinduism l.jpg

    Hinduism


    Buddhism l.jpg

    Buddhism


    Islam l.jpg

    Islam


    Confucianism l.jpg

    Confucianism


    Shintoism l.jpg

    Shintoism


    Belief systems philosophies intellectual legacies codes for living l.jpg

    BELIEF SYSTEMS, PHILOSOPHIES, INTELLECTUAL LEGACIES, CODES FOR LIVING

    • "SECULAR""RELIGIOUS"

      (GROUP IDENTITY,(HUMAN MORTALITY

      NATIONALISM)AND SUPERSTITION)

      * Confucianism* Hinduism

      * Communism* Islam

      * Capitalism* Buddhism*

      * Bushido* Christianity

      * Taoism

      * Shintoism

      * Animism/ Shamanism/ Magic


    Some ways of classifying belief systems l.jpg

    SOME WAYS OF CLASSIFYING “BELIEF SYSTEMS”

    • (1) Universalistic <-----> Community

      ReligionsReligions

      (Plus sects/ denominations)

    • (2) Monodeism <----> Polydeism <---> Nondeistic

      *Islam *Hinduism *Buddhism

      *Christianity *Taoism

      *Shintoism

      *Animism


    Some ways of classifying belief systems105 l.jpg

    SOME WAYS OF CLASSIFYING “BELIEF SYSTEMS”

    • (3)“Tolerant <----> “Exclusive, expansionary

      Religions”intolerant Religions”

      *Buddhism?Christianity??

      *Shintoism?Islam??

      Judaism??

    • (4) Religions with a focus on “Nature”

      * Hinduism--- “Gods of…..”

      * Taoism---Yin-yang, balance, harmony, earth’s natural energy, feng shui, etc

      * Shintoism---Kami

      * Animism---Eg: Indonesian spirits, exorcism, etc


    Some ways of classifying belief systems106 l.jpg

    SOME WAYS OF CLASSIFYING “BELIEF SYSTEMS”

    • (5) Religions subject to “syncretism”

      • Balinese Hinduism

      • Javanese Islam

      • Filipino Christianity

    • (6)Belief systems which stress hierarchy/ respect

      All-, but especially:

      • Confucianism (filial piety, etc)

      • Hinduism (Caste system, etc)

      • Islam (gender based hierarchy, etc)

      • Buddhism (self respect/ self discipline)


    Some ways of classifying belief systems107 l.jpg

    SOME WAYS OF CLASSIFYING “BELIEF SYSTEMS”

    • (7) Group Oriented <---> Individualistic

      * Confucianism* Christianity (both?)

      * Shintoism* Buddhism (both?)

    • (8) Accceptance Progress oriented/

      of the <--------> perfectability

      status quo

      * Hinduism* Christianity

      * Islam* Buddhism


    Some ways of classifying belief systems108 l.jpg

    SOME WAYS OF CLASSIFYING “BELIEF SYSTEMS”

    • (9) Reincarnation <------> Single life

      (Multiple lives) (Heaven or equivalent)

      * Hinduism* Christianity

      (incl animals)* Islam

      * Buddhism

      (Nirvana)

    • (10) Religious observance

      * Shrine/ church/ temple/ mosque

      * Home

      * Individual


    Some ways of classifying belief systems109 l.jpg

    SOME WAYS OF CLASSIFYING “BELIEF SYSTEMS”

    • (11) Religion and “the State”

      • Islam- strong link: eg Malaysia and Indonesia

      • Confucianism-was the state

      • Community religions- ignore the state

  • (12) Religions and “Modernity”

    • Modernisation and secualarisation?

    • The role of the mass media and popular culture?

    • As the basis of a set of “Asian values”?


  • Section 4 colonialism imperialism and nationalism in asia l.jpg

    Section 4: Colonialism, Imperialism and Nationalism in Asia

    • Motives: “Gold, God and Glory”

    • Colonial Patterns:

      • Britain- India, Burma, Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore

      • France- Indo-China (modern day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia)

      • Holland- “The East Indies” (modern day Indonesia)

      • Spain- The Philippines

      • Portugal- Macau, Goa

      • Germany- the eastern section of New Guinea

    • Debates over Colonialism and Nationalism


    Section 5 modernisation and globalisation in asia l.jpg

    Section 5: Modernisation and Globalisation in Asia


    Section structure112 l.jpg

    Section Structure

    • (1) The concepts of modernisation and globalisation

    • (2) The patterns of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    • (3) The dimensions of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    • (4) The case study approach to modernisation/ globalisation: Some examples


    1 the concepts of modernisation globalisation l.jpg

    (1) The concepts of modernisation/ globalisation

    • “Modernisation” and “globalisation” as processes

    • The “evidence” of modernisation/ globalisation

    • Beyond “modernity”- concepts of the “post modern” and the “post industrial”

    • “Western” and “Asian” modernisations the interface with globalisation

    • The uneven nature of modernisation/ globalisation- an urban phenomenon?


    2 the patterns of modernisation globalisation in asia l.jpg

    (2) The patterns of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    • The theory of “the western movement of civilisations”

    • Modernisation despite adversity?

    • East Asian modernisation- Japan as a catalyst, and the role of the USA

    • The “Tiger Economies”

    • South-east Asian modernisation- “The Mini Dragons”

    • China and India


    2 the patterns of modernisation globalisation in asia115 l.jpg

    (2) The patterns of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    • Modernisation in “Communist” systems- China and Vietnam- China’s stellar performance

    • South Asia and Modernisation- India’s remarkable growth

    • The “failure” to modernise- Bangladesh, Cambodia, the Philippines

    • Defying modernisation- North Korea, Myanmar, Afghanistan

    • Regional contrasts in modernisation- across Asia and within individual Asian countries


    3 the dimensions of modernisation globalisation in asia l.jpg

    (3) The dimensions of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    • Economic

    • Technological

    • Ideological/ political

    • Social/ cultural/ lifestyles


    3 the dimensions of modernisation globalisation in asia117 l.jpg

    (3) The dimensions of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    Economic modernisation

    • Measuring economic modernisation- growth rates, GDP, GNP, demographic indicators

    • The “miraculous” nature of the growth statistics (p151)

    • From import substitution to export orientation

    • The role of government in economic modernisation?- “Command capitalism”

    • The role of “comparative advantage”- off shoring and cross investment in Asia

    • Economic modernisation and economic crises? – from July 1997 to the recent “global financial crisis” (“GFC”)


    3 the dimensions of modernisation globalisation in asia118 l.jpg

    (3) The dimensions of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    • Technological modernisation

    • The “traditional pattern” of technological modernisation: Crafts/ toys/textiles -> Heavy industry -> High Tech (ETMs)

    • Modifications of this pattern in Asia- eg straight to manufacture of ETMs

    • “Niche products” and “niche markets” (Window shop activity)

    • “Product development” versus “product manufacture”


    3 the dimensions of modernisation globalisation in asia119 l.jpg

    (3) The dimensions of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    • Ideological/ political modernisation

    • Modernisation as a challenge to authoritarian governments: (“Authoritarian democracies” and Communist systems)

    • The rise of the middle class -> political activism or the ideology of consumerism?

    • Consumerism as a replacement for nationalism -> consumerism and individual and cultural identity? AND nationalism associated with increasing prosperity- eg China

    • Is there an ideology called “Asian capitalism”?

    • Modernisation and the “Asian values” debate?


    3 the dimensions of modernisation globalisation in asia120 l.jpg

    (3) The dimensions of modernisation/ globalisation in Asia

    • Social/ cultural/ lifestyle/ modernisation

    • “Cultural convergence theory”- does Asian modernisation mean westernisation?

    • Global influences versus Japanese influences versus local influences?

    • Lifestyle evidence of modernisation versus maintenance of “core values”?

    • The centrality of “consumerism”- fashion, brand labels, the latest technology, etc. The “feel good factor” and “cultural identity”


    4 the case study approach to modernisation globalisation some examples l.jpg

    Japan

    South Korea

    Taiwan

    Malaysia

    Singapore

    Indonesia

    China

    Vietnam

    India

    (4) The case study approach to modernisation/ globalisation: Some examples


    China l.jpg

    China

    • A long tradition of “doing business”

    • Mao’s ideological “madness”

    • Deng’s modernisation policies- “to get rich quick is glorious”, “the colour of the cat…”, etc

    • The significance of the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) eg Shenzhen then Shanghai and Beijing- 2008 Olympics

    • Contemporary “economic miracle”- emphasis on “manufacturer to the world” and rampant consumerism- potential enormity of domestic market

    • The westward movement of modernisation eg Chongqing

    • The “two Chinas” and rural unrest

    • Environmental consequences

    • Emergence of China as a “global investor”- issues of Chinese takeover or partial ownership of Western companies

    • Chinese companies becoming major project builders in the “third world”

    • As the “creditor nation” to the USA’s “debtor nation status”- what does this mean for recovery from the “global financial crisis”/ GFC?


    Shenzhen l.jpg

    Shenzhen


    Shanghai l.jpg

    Shanghai


    Beijing l.jpg

    Beijing


    Beijing olympics l.jpg

    Beijing Olympics


    Shanghai stadium l.jpg

    Shanghai Stadium


    India l.jpg

    India

    • Advantages of a well educated workforce fluent in English- a “colonial legacy” and current education policies

    • Focus on services- especially call centres, and technology- especially computer software

    • Main epicentre of India’s “economic miracle” is Bangalore, but Delhi and Mumbai also emerging

    • Has the world’s largest middle class- 250 million- consumerism

    • “Outsourcing” and “offshoring”

    • Impact on jobs in Australia and the USA

    • Ongoing poverty in most of the 640,000 Indian villages- “two Indias”


    New delhi l.jpg

    New Delhi


    Bangalore l.jpg

    Bangalore


  • Login