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Lecture Number 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright Chapter 11 Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration PPT by Clark E. Adams Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration Global perspective on biological systems Conservation, preservation, restoration

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environmental science toward a sustainable future richard t wright

Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable FutureRichard T. Wright

Chapter 11

Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration

PPT by Clark E. Adams

ecosystem capital use and restoration
Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration
  • Global perspective on biological systems
  • Conservation, preservation, restoration
  • Biomes and ecosystems under pressure
  • Public and private lands in the United States
what we need to know about ecosystems
What We Need to Know about Ecosystems
  • How they sustain human life and economies
  • Positive and negative effects of ecosystem conversions
  • Sustainable approaches to ecosystem management
natural ecosystems on earth s surface table 11 1
Natural Ecosystems on Earth’s Surface: Table 11-1
  • Total land area: 57.6 million square miles
  • Total ocean area: 172.6 million square miles – mostly open ocean
services of natural ecosystems see table 3 2
Services of Natural Ecosystems (see Table 3-2)
  • Modification of climate
  • Maintenance of hydrological cycle
  • Erosion control and soil building
services of natural ecosystems see table 3 27
Services of Natural Ecosystems (see Table 3-2)
  • Maintenance of oxygen and nitrogen cycles
  • Waste treatment
  • Pest management
  • Carbon storage and maintenance of carbon cycle
wetland services
Wetland Services
  • Valued at $100,000 per acre per year
  • Water purification and fish propagation
conservation preservation restoration
Conservation, Preservation, Restoration
  • Conservation versus preservation
  • Patterns of use of natural ecosystems
  • Restoration
conservation versus preservation
Conservation versus Preservation
  • Conservation: managing or regulating use so that it does not exceed the capacity of the species or system to renew itself
  • Preservation: ensure species or ecosystem continuity regardless of their potential utility
patterns of human use of natural resources true or false
Patterns of Human Use of Natural Resources (True or False)
  • Greed
  • Ignorance
  • Desperation
  • Sustainability
  • Mining the resource
  • Managing the resource
  • Unregulated access to resource
tragedy of the commons
Tragedy of the Commons
  • Begins with unregulated access to a resource owned by no one. Examples?
  • Harvest based on largest amount over the shortest period of time.
  • No thought given to sustainable harvests.
  • Usually ends with no resource for anyone.
preventing a tragedy of the commons
Preventing a Tragedy of the Commons
  • Private ownership
  • Regulated access
    • Sustained benefits
    • Fairness in access rights
    • Common consent of the regulated
principles incorporated into public policies to protect natural resources table 11 2
Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)
  • Natural resources cannot be treated as an open commons.
  • Sound science needed to assess health and level of resource use.
  • Precautionary principle should be used in setting limits for exploitation.
principles incorporated into public policies to protect natural resources table 11 216
Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)
  • Regulations should be enforced.
  • Economic incentives that encourage the violation of regulations should be eliminated.
  • Subsidies that support exploitation should be removed.
principles incorporated into public policies to protect natural resources table 11 217
Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)
  • Suitable habitats for the resource should be preserved and protected from pollution.
  • The sustenance needs of people living close to the resource should be met.
restoration
Restoration
  • The intent of ecosystem restoration is to repair the damage to specific land and waters so that normal ecosystem integrity, resilience, and productivity returns.
biomes and ecosystems under pressure
Biomes and Ecosystems under Pressure
  • Forest biomes
  • Ocean ecosystems
  • Coral reefs and mangroves
forest biomes
Forest Biomes
  • Conserve biodiversity
  • Moderate regional climates
  • Prevent erosion
  • Store carbon and nutrients
  • Provide recreational opportunities
  • Provide a number of vital goods
causes of deforestation
Causes of Deforestation
  • Conversion into pastures and agricultural lands
  • Consequences? (next slide)
consequences of deforestation
Consequences of Deforestation

Productivity

Nutrient recycling

Biodiversity

Soil erosion

Transpiration

Air pollution

More

Deforestation

or

Less

silviculture forest management with harvest goals
Silviculture: Forest Management with Harvest Goals
  • Even-aged management
    • Clear-cutting: no tree left behind
  • Uneven-aged management
    • Selective cutting
causes of the loss of tropical rain forests
Causes of the Loss of Tropical Rain Forests
  • Colonization: consolidation of agricultural lands
  • Huge national debts
  • Fast food chains and cheap hamburger
conserving tropical rain forests
Conserving Tropical Rain Forests
  • Ecotourism
  • Extractive reserves
  • Management by indigenous people
  • Rubber plantations
  • Sustainable logging
sustainable forest management
Sustainable Forest Management
  • Manage for sustainable outcomes
  • Teach others
  • Protect the health of the forest
  • Recognize and protect unique forest ecosystems
  • Strive to be better forest managers
ocean ecosystems
Ocean Ecosystems

75% of the Earth’s

surface

An international

commons?

global fish harvests
Global Fish Harvests

139 million metric tons by

2001

fisheries problems bottom trawling
Fisheries Problems: Bottom Trawling

Too many boats

High technology

Too few fish

the magnuson conservation act of 1976
The Magnuson Conservation Act of 1976
  • Gave federal government authority to manage fisheries
  • Claimed the area between 3 and 200 miles offshore as the “Exclusive Economic Zone”
the magnuson conservation act of 197633
The Magnuson Conservation Act of 1976
  • Designed to eliminate foreign fishing
  • Designed to restore and conserve fish

http://images.fws.gov/

sustainable fisheries act
Sustainable Fisheries Act
  • The 1996 reauthorization of the Magnuson Act
  • Mandates that fish stocks be rebuilt
  • Management plans and yields be based on scientific data
  • Steps be taken to minimize bycatch
factors that restored whale populations true or false
Factors That Restored Whale Populations (True or False)
  • International Whaling Commission
  • The Red Data Book
  • Whale watching
  • Japan’s scientific research
  • Stellwagen bank

http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/animals/

mangroves
Mangroves
  • Protects coasts from storm damage and erosion
  • Forms rich refuge and nursery for marine fish
coral reefs
Coral Reefs
  • Important food sources for local people
  • Wave erosion control
  • Great diversity of marine vertebrates and invertebrates
sources of damage to coral reefs
Sources of Damage to Coral Reefs
  • Warm water
  • Eutrophication
  • Islander poverty
  • Logging
  • Shrimp aquaculture
  • Coastal development
public and private lands in the united states
Public and Private Lands in the United States
  • National parks and national wildlife refuges
  • National forests
  • Protecting nonfederal lands
  • Conclusion
wilderness act of 1964
Wilderness Act of 1964
  • Provides for permanent protection of undeveloped and unexploited areas so that natural ecological processes can operate freely
  • 5% of land area in U.S.
  • Preservation, not conservation
national forests
National Forests
  • Only 5% of the original U.S. forests are left
  • Most U.S. forests are second growth

http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/lassen/fire/gallery/

slide45

Environmental

Concerns

Reagan

Clinton

Post WW II

Housing Boom

new forestry ecosystem management
New Forestry = Ecosystem Management
  • Cut trees less frequently
  • Leave wider buffer zones along waterways
  • Leave dead logs and debris
  • Protect broader landscapes
  • Build no new roads until damage to old ones is addressed
protecting nonfederal lands
Protecting Nonfederal Lands
  • Land Trust Alliance
  • Nature Conservancy
  • Trustees of Reservations in Massachusetts
conclusions
Conclusions?
  • We are plundering our children’s heritage to pay for our present unsustainable practices.
  • We need a new ethic of stewardship.
    • U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan
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