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Leadership. Chapter 1 - Introduction. Northouse, 5th edition. Overview. Conceptualizing Leadership Leadership Definition Components of the Definition Followers & Leadership. The focus of group processes A personality perspective An act or behavior

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Leadership l.jpg


Chapter 1 - Introduction

Northouse, 5th edition

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Conceptualizing Leadership

Leadership Definition

Components of the Definition

Followers & Leadership

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The focus of group processes

A personality perspective

An act or behavior

The power relationship between leaders & followers

An instrument of goal achievement

A skills perspective

Conceptualizing Leadership

Some definitions view leadership as:

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Leadership Defined


is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.

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Components Central to the Phenomenon of Leadership


  • Is a process

  • Involves influence

  • Occurs within a group context

  • Involves goal attainment


  • Are not above followers

  • Are not better than followers

  • Rather, an interactive relationship with followers

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Trait vs. Process Leadership

Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership

Leadership & Power

Leadership & Coercion

Leadership & Management

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Certain individuals have special innate characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders.

Resides in select people

Restricted to those with inborn talent

Trait vs. Process Leadership

Trait definition of leadership:


  • Height

  • Intelligence

  • Extroversion

  • Fluency

  • Other Traits



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Leadership qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders. is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982).

Observed in leadership behaviors

Can be learned

Trait vs. Process Leadership

The process definition of Leadership:





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Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization

Team leaders

Plant managers

Department heads


An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title

Emerges over time through communication behaviors

Verbal involvement

Being informed

Seeking others’ opinions

Being firm but not rigid

Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership



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The capacity or potential to influence. organization

Ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes & actions






Leadership & Power

Bases of Social Power

French & Raven (1959)


Power is a relational concern for both leaders and followers.

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REFERENT POWER – organizationBased on followers’ identification and liking for the leader.

ex. A teacher who is adored by students has referent power.

EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence.

ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country has expert power.

LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or formal job authority.

ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits legitimate power

Five Bases of Power

Leadership & Power

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REWARD POWER – organizationDerived from having the capacity to provide rewards to others.

ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard is using reward power.

COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others.

ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to practice is using coercive power.

Five Bases of Power

Leadership & Power

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Power is influence derived from being seen as likable & knowledgeable



Power derived from office or rank in an organization




Leadership & Power

Types and Bases of Power

Position Power

Personal Power

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Use of force to effect change knowledgeable

Influencing others to do something via manipulation of rewards and penalties in the work environment

Use of threats, punishments, & negative rewards

Adolf Hitler

Jim Jones

David Koresh

Leadership & Coercion

Coercion Involves

Examples of Coercive Leaders

Power & restraint used to force followers to

engage in extreme


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Leadership & Management knowledgeableKotter (1990)





“Produces order

and consistency”

“Produces change

and movement”

  • Planning & Budgeting

  • Organizing & Staffing

  • Controlling & Problem Solving

  • Establishing direction

  • Aligning people

  • Motivating / Inspiring

Major activities of management & leadership

are played out differently; BUT, both are essential

for an organization to prosper.

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Leadership & Management knowledgeableZaleznik (1977)


Unidirectional Authority


Multidirectional Influence

  • Are emotionally active

  • & involved

  • Are reactive

  • Shape ideas over

  • responding to them

  • Prefer to work with

  • people on problem

  • solving

  • Act to expand

  • available options

  • Low emotional

  • involvement

  • Change the way people

  • think about what is

  • possible