International tour operator management part ii
Download
1 / 59

International Tour Operator Management Part II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 242 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: General

International Tour Operator Management Part II. Market Research and customer behaviour . Forecasting models in tourism. Forecasting is very necessary in tourism Rational decision cannot be taken with forecast about trends Risk of management mistakes is high in tourism because

Related searches for International Tour Operator Management Part II

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha

Download Presentation

International Tour Operator Management Part II

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript




Forecasting models in tourism l.jpg
Forecasting models in tourism

  • Forecastingisverynecessary in tourism

    • Rational decisioncannotbetakenwithforecastabouttrends

    • Riskofmanagementmistakesishigh in tourismbecause

      • Tourismservicescannotbestored

      • Service consumptionispartofproduction, happeningat same time

      • Customer satisfactiondependsto a large part on externalfactors

      • Formanyareashighinvestmentcosts (infrastructure, hotels)

  • Different criteriaformeasuring tourism

    • Number of visitors/guests, number of tourists (UNWTO)

    • Number of visitor groups

    • Number of overnight stays

    • Level of expenditure per person per day

    • Value added share of tourism (WTTC)

    • Market share


Forecasting methods in tourism l.jpg
Forecasting methods in tourism

  • Difficulties

    • New industry, lack oflong-termtimelinesandhistoricdata

    • Standardisation oftourismstatistics just beginninginternationally (Satelliteaccounts), not existingfordomestictourism

    • Demand volatile, easilyinfluencedbyexternalfactorsandevents

    • Under-academicationoftourismindustry, „Ruleofthumb“

    • Lack ofmethodicalknowledge in tourismindustry

  • Forms offorecasting

    • Qualitative und quantitative Forecastingmethods

    • Short / longtermmethods

    • Examples: Survey, Scenarios, Delphi


Market research and analysis l.jpg
Market research and analysis

  • Market research

    • Systematicprocessofacquiring, processingandanalysing quantitative and qualitative datatoassistthedecisionmakingprocess.

  • Different formsofmarketresearch

    • Facts, Images, perceptions, motivations

    • Analysis ofsituationatgivenmomentorongoingmarketscanto understand developmentsandtrendsofmarket

  • Major tasksofmarketresearch

    • Definition of (sub-)markets

    • Analysis of (sub-)markets

    • Demand research

    • Competitionresearch


Market research forms l.jpg
Market research forms

  • Primary research – Field research

    • Ownresearch (companyor Institute)

      • Surveys

      • Observation

      • Experiment

      • Reporting

  • Secundaryresearch – Desk research

    • Internal sources

    • Externalsources


German tourism market research institutes i l.jpg
German tourism market research institutes I

  • B.A.T. Freizeit-Forschungsinstitut GmbH, Hamburg

  • Consultant Aviation & Tourism, Stelle

  • Creatours Destination, Freizeit, Tourismus, Dresden

  • Dallmeier & Partner, Korschenbroich

  • Deutscher Reisemonitor – DRM, c/o IPK International GmbH, München

  • Deutsches Touristik-Institut eV, DTI, Stockdorf/München

  • dwif – Consulting GmbH, Berlin/München

  • dwif – Deutsches Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Institut für Fremdenverkehr eV an der Universität München, München

  • Europäisches Tourismus Institut – ETI, Trier

  • Europäischer Reisemonitor c/o European Travel Intelligence Center, Luxemburg

  • FT – Freizeit und Touristik GmbH, Grafschaft


German tourism market research institutes ii l.jpg
German tourism market research institutes II

  • FUR Forschungsgemeinschaft Urlaub und Reisen eV, Kiel

  • Inspektour GmbH, Heide

  • Ipsos GmbH, Mölln

  • ITF Research GmbH, Bremerhaven

  • Mobility & Touristcope, (DB, LH, T.O., Autoindustrie), Frankfurt

  • Project M Marketing Research GmbH, Lüneburg

  • Reppel + Partner GmbH, Karslruhe-Durlach

  • Studiengemeinschaft für Tourismus SfT, Ammerland/Bayern

  • TourismusKompetenz, München

  • Ulysses – Web-Tourismus, München

  • World-Travel Monitor Ltd. Malta, c/o IPK International GmbH, München



Examples of market research methods l.jpg
Examples of Market research methods

  • Surveys: oral, written, bytelephone, online

    • Structured/unstructured, standardised

    • Open/half open/closedsurveys

  • Experiment

    • Test markets

  • Observation

    • Customer behaviour

    • Frequencies, Spatialmovementanalysis, testpurchases

  • Trend analysis

    • Extrapolation ofpastdevelopmentsintothefuture: dangerous(„Predictionsaredangerous, especiallyiftheyconcernthefuture“ – Nils Bohrs) especiallyfor fast developingactivityliketourism

    • Example: Predictionsofsituation 2007 made in 1987 (cold war), or 1997 (nointernet, nobudgetairlines)


  • Customer behaviour l.jpg
    Customer behaviour

    • Influences

      • Cultural

        • Cultural background

        • Subculture

        • Social background

      • Social

        • Peer groups

        • Family

        • Role and Status

        • Perception of tourism

      • Personal

        • Age, current biographical situation

        • Job

        • Economic situation

        • Lifestyle

        • Self-perception

        • Motivation

        • Values

        • Travel Biography

    • Increasing segmentation

    • number of milieus increasing

    • disappearance of clear social roles in post-modern society


    Market segmentation l.jpg
    Market segmentation

    • http://www.sinus-sociovision.de/


    Analysis of customer behaviour l.jpg
    Analysis of customer behaviour

    • Seven questions, sevenanswers


    Competitor analysis and benchmarking l.jpg
    Competitor analysis and benchmarking

    • Ongoinganalysisofcompetitorsbehaviour

      • Direct: Observation ofproducts, offers, marketingactivitiesofcompetitors

      • Indirect: Intelligenceaboutcompetitorsplansandstrategies(„Knowyourenemybetterthan he knowshimself“ – Sun Zi)

    • Benchmarking

      • Learning fromthebest in thebranch (opposite „bestpractice“ – can also befromotherbranches)

      • Identifyingbenchmarkcompetitorforspecifictask, analysisofownshortcomings, implementation, feedback (TQM)


    Definition of market for specific product l.jpg
    Definition of Market for specific product

    • Marketsarementallyconstructed

    • Marketsaredynamic

    • Customers decide on marketstructure

  • Classical Segmentation

    • Geographical, demographicalandpsychographical

  • Postmodern Segmentierung

    • Lifestyle, activities, milieus


  • Major trends in customer behaviour l.jpg
    Major trends in customer behaviour

    • 1. Changingcustomerprofile

    • 2. Shiftingconsumptionpattern

    • 3. Intensifyingcompetition / continuingconsolidation

    • 4. Growingsegmentation

    • 5. Escalatingconcernforsafety / security

    • 6. Increasingvalueorientation

    • 7. Increasinginfluenceoftheinternet

    • 8. Severalshorttripsinsteadofonelongholiday, short-time decision

    • 9. Lesscustomersloyaltyfor Tour Operator ordestination




    Tourism motivation l.jpg
    Tourism motivation

    • Someclassicaltheories:

    • Maslow‘spyramidofneeds

    • Fleeingfrombadsituationathome

    • Searchforauthenticity

    • Recreation, regeneration

    • Self-actualization

    • Contrasttohome

    • Structuringof time after lossofreligious time frame

    • Travellingforhealthreasons

    • Travellingforunrestrictedenactmentofconsumption (sex, alcohol, servility)

    • Travellingasowngoal (thewayisthegoal: hiking, cruise)


    Tourists typologies l.jpg
    Tourists typologies

    • Typologiesaccordingto

      • Activities

      • Preferredsurroundings

      • Spatialbehaviour

      • Level ofintegrationintolocalcommunity

      • Forms ofinformationgathering

      • Opposition to normal life

      • Frequencyoftravel

      • Position in biographicaldevelopmentoftravelling

      • Etc. etc.

      • Problem: multioptional behaviourwithinsourcemarketsandwithin individual touristincreasing, wishforhigherintensity


    Tourists and lifestyle typologies examples l.jpg
    Tourists and lifestyle typologies - Examples

    • Opaschowski: Touristsfocussing on

      • Integration

      • Prestige

      • Experience

      • Culture

      • Entertainment

      • Quality

      • Economy

    • Austria 2000 – Euro-Lifestyle

      • The carefulRecreationist

      • The classical Culture tourist

      • The demandingExperiencer

      • The youngEnjoyer

      • The young Family


    Marketing for tour operators l.jpg
    Marketing for Tour operators

    Discussion

    Major problems:

    Brand-adequate Quality: Dependance on externalserviceproviders

    Increasingtransparencyofoffersfromcompetitors / directsales

    Dependance on destinationmarketing - Necessitiyofcooperation





    Types of packages tours l.jpg
    Types of packages tours

    • Fullpackage tour

    • Part package tour

    • Individual package tour (moduls)

    • All Inclusive Tour

    • Dynamic Packaging

    • Specifictours (f.i. business, incentive, cruise, pilgrime, event tour)


    Product development l.jpg
    Product development

    • Whatisthecustomerreallylookingfor?

      • Example „Space“ tourism

      • Genericproduct

      • Expectedproduct

      • Extended product

      • Potential product

    • Productincludes

      • Competence toofferproductsolutions

      • Bundleofservicesnecessary

      • Service claimsandpromises

      • Risktaking

      • Packageprice

      • Preparation, Standardisation, Quality control


    Product adaptation l.jpg
    Product adaptation

    • Whatare different sourcemarketcustomersreallylookingfor?

      • Productadaptationaccordingtocustomersexpectationsandbehaviour

      • Different stories for same productfor different customers

      • Spatialdifferentationfor different customergroupsatdestination


    Parts of product l.jpg
    Parts of product

    • Technical

      • Material, Construction

    • Aesthetic

      • Form, Colour, Design, Packaging

    • Symbolic

      • Brand, Image

    • Main features

      • Aim/Goal ofproductpurchase

    • Additional features

      • Information, Customer service


    Dynamic packaging l.jpg
    Dynamic Packaging

    • Definition

      • Choosing, packagingandbookingfor different modulsof a package tour in realtimewith a packageprice

    • Dynamic Packagingdisappears in massmarket

      • Withincreaseofpackagetouristsstandardisedpre-packedtourswithstandardlengthandprogrammeeasierttoorganiseandtosell

    • Dynamic Packagingreappears in post-industrialconsumermarket

      • Wishfor multi-purpose, multi-dimensional travel. Increase in travelexperiencebycustomers, IT advantages

    • Dynamic Packagingchanges T.O. business

      • Need tohave stand-alonecomponentsready in realtime

      • Muddlingofbordertravelagency – tour operator



    Price in the product life cycle l.jpg
    Price in the product life cycle

    Price

    Cost plus Pricing

    Penetration

    Time




    Distribution35 l.jpg
    Distribution

    • Waysofdistribution

      • Directdistribution

      • indirectdistribution

    • Forms ofsalesorganisations

      • Own / others: broker, consolidators, traders

      • Withintheindustry (cooperation, franchise, travelagencies) / outside theindustry (retail, departmentstores, gas station)

    • Instruments ofdistribution

      • Agency agreement, commission, direct/indirectsalessupport, trainingofstaff


    Direct and indirect distribution l.jpg
    Direct and indirect Distribution

    DIRECT

    • Lowercosts

    • Bettercustomerrelation

    • Higher brandawareness

    • Lessreliance on distributionpartners

    • But: conflictwithtravelagenciesandotherdistributionpartners

      • (examples German Railway, Colorline)

        INDIRECT

    • Ownchannels (travelagencies, mediagroups, franchise)

    • Other channels (general, selectiveorexclusive)


    Travel agencies as distribution channel for tour operators l.jpg
    Travel agencies as distribution channel for tour operators

    • „Ein Reisebüro/Reisevermittler ist im Verhältnis zum Reiseveranstalter Handelsvertreter im Sinne der §§ 84 ff HGB und für den Kunden / Reisenden auf der Basis eines entgeltlichen (Provision) Geschäftsbesorgungsvertrages § 675 BGB mit Werkvertragscharakter §§ 631 ff BGB tätig.“

    • Vertragsgegenstand zwischen Reisebüro und Kunde ist die

      • Vermittlung einer einzelnen Reiseleistung eines fremden Leistungsträgers oder

      • Vermittlung einer Pauschalreise eines fremden Reiseveranstalters.


    Function of the travel agency l.jpg
    Function of the travel agency

    • Tour operatorspointofview:

      • Matchmakingbetweencustomerand T.O.

      • Commission isonlypaidifbusinessisgenerated, partof variable coststructure

      • Provision ofcomprehensivedistributionnetworkwithoutonwinvestment

      • Known POS

      • Oftengoodlocation (1A) (physical / internet)

      • Existenceof loyal regularcustomers, goodexperiencesofcustomerswithtravelagencycrossingovertorecommended T.O. product

    • Customers pointofview:

      • Easy toreach, personal service

      • Physicalinformation (catalogues)

      • Consultation, answersto „silly“ questions

      • Face-to-facecommunication, also forcomplaints

      • Filters out unsuitable, unrealiableoffers



    Communication policy40 l.jpg
    Communication policy

    • Goal: PositivelyInfluencing

      • Ownstaff

      • Potential customers

      • Actualcustomers

      • Public opinion

      • Politicians, institutions


    Advertisement above the line l.jpg
    Advertisement – above the line

    • Openlyinfluencingpublicopinionto

      • Keep customers

      • Getnewcustomers

      • Produce positive environmentforownproducts

      • Directlyadresscustomers


    Sales support l.jpg
    Sales support

    • Supportingdistributionchannels:

      • Monetaryactivities:

        Commission on sales (basic, special, volume-based, target-based)

        Incentivesfor individual sellers

        Refinancingof PR/advertisementactivities

        Payment ofcreditcardcosts etc.

      • Non-monetaryactivities:

        Productinformation

        Trainings

        discountedtravels

        decorationmaterials

        Hotline etc.

    • Supportingdirectdistribution:

      • Catalogues, discounts, loyaltybonusses etc.


    Public relations work below the line l.jpg
    Public Relations work - below the line

    • IndirectlyorCovertlyinfluencingpublicopinionby

      • Press releases

      • Events

      • Sponsoring

      • Customers forum

      • House magazines

      • Website

      • Participation in fairs etc.

      • Productplacement

      • Guerilla marketing

      • Covert websitessupport

      • Cross selling etc.



    Quality management45 l.jpg
    Quality management

    • Quality ≠ Expensive

    • Quality: Hardware, Surroundings, Software

    • Quality: Ongoingprocess


    Tqm total quality management l.jpg
    TQM – Total Quality Management

    • Customer pointofview: Howimportantistheserviceofferedandhow was thequalityoftheserviceperceived?

    • Producers pointofview: Howgood was thequalitymanagement?

    • TQM as a never-endingupward spiral (Kaizen)


    Ecology management l.jpg
    Ecology management

    • Based on:

    • Laws andregulations

    • Customer demand

    • Staffdemand

    • In Germany:

    • DeHoGa Eco Criteria

    • Governmentsubsidiesfrom

      • European Recovery Program (ERP)

      • Deutsche Ausgleichsbank (DtA)

      • Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW)

      • Bundesländer Subsidies


    Ecology management48 l.jpg
    Ecology management

    • Labels:

    • Many Ecology labelsworldwide on different levels

    • Example Bavaria: http://www.stmugv.bayern.de/umwelt/wirtschaft/siegel/index.htm

    • Other examples:

    • Blaue Flagge, Grüner Koffer

    • Top label in Germany: Viabono


    Sources l.jpg
    Sources

    • Bastian, H., Born, K., (2004): Der integrierte Tourismuskonzern, München/Wien.

    • Becker, P., (2004): Yield-Management, Düsseldorf.

    • Berg, W., (2001): Tourismus 3, (Hrsg.) Dettmer, H., Stuttgart.

    • Bieger, T., (2002): Management der Destination, 5. Auflage, München/Wien.

    • Böttcher, V., (2005): Virtuell oder real?, TUI Deutschland, Köln.

    • Dettmer, H., Glück, E., Hausmann, Th., Kaspar, C., Logins, H., Opitz, W., Schneid, W., (2000): Tourismustypen, München/Wien.

    • Dettmer, H., Hausmann, Th., Kloss, I., Meisl, H., Weithöner, U., Degott, P., (1999): Tourismus-Marketing-Management, München/Wien.

    • Dettmer, H., Hausmann, T., Kaspar, C., Oppitz, W., Schneid, W., (2001): Tourismusbetriebswirtschaft 2 – Managementformen im Tourismus, Wien/Köln/Aarau.

    • Dettmer, H., Hausmann, Th., (2004): Yield-Management, Bad Harzburg.

    • Dettmer, H., u.a., (2005): Managementformen im Tourismus, München/Wien.


    Slide50 l.jpg

    • DSF - Deutsches Seminar für Fremdenverkehr, (2002): Pauschalreisen rechtlich absichern, Berlin.

    • Eisner, H., (1987): Reiserecht Entscheidungen, München.

    • Echtermeyer, M., (1998): Elektronisches Tourismus-Marketing, Berlin/New York.

    • Fresi, A., (2005): Die nächste Generation der Reiseproduktion – Realtime Enterprise Kollaboration in der Reiseindustrie, Siemens, Köln.

    • Freyer, W., (1998): Tourismus, 7. Auflage, München/Wien.

    • Freyer W., Pompl, W., (1999): Reisebüro-Management, München/Wien.

    • fvw, (2005): TID, Der Touristik Informationsdienst, Hamburg.

    • Glaeßer, D., (2001): Krisenmanagement im Tourismus, Frankfurt.

    • Gruner, A., (2000): Tourismus 2, (Hrsg.) Dettmer, H., Köln.

    • Gruner, A., (2004): Methoden des Yield-Managements im Logisbereich der internationalen Hotellerie, München.

    • Haedrich, G., Kaspar, C., Klemm, Ch., Kreilkamp, E., (1998): Tourismus-Management, 3. Auflage, Berlin/New York.


    Slide51 l.jpg

    • Hänssler, K.H., (2000): Management in der Hotellerie und Gastronomie, 4. Auflage, München/Wien.

    • Kärcher, K., (2004): Urlaub per Mausklick – Die Potenziale des Dynamic Packaging.

    • Kaspar, C., (1986): Die Fremdenverkehrslehre im Grundriss, 3. Auflage, St. Gallen.

    • Kirstges, T. (1992): Sanfter Tourismus, München/Wien.

    • Kotler, P., Bliemel, F., (2001): Marketing-Management, 10. Auflage, Stuttgart.

    • Kreilkamp, E., (2002): Reisbüros unter Druck, Wiesbaden.

    • Kreilkamp, E., (1999): Die Zukunft der Reisebüros, Lüneburg.

    • Logins, H., (2004): Yield-Management – Arbeitspapier, München.

    • Medlik, S., (1991): Managing Tourism, Oxford.

    • Mundt, J.W., (1998): Reiseveranstaltung, 4.Auflage, München/Wien.

    • Nies, I., (2005): Reisebüro, Rechts- und Versicherungsfragen, 2. Auflage, München.


    Slide52 l.jpg

    • Olfert, K., Rahn, H.J., (2001): Lexikon der Betriebswirtschaftslehre, 4. Auflage, Ludwigshafen.

    • Opaschowski, H.W., (2005): Tourismusanalyse 2005 mit Grundlagenforschung, Hamburg.

    • Pichler, S., (2000), E-Business in der Reisebranche – Chancen oder Risiko?, Wiesbaden.

    • Pompl, W., (2002): Luftverkehr, 4. Auflage, Berlin/Heidelberg.

    • Pompl, W., (1997): Touristikmanagement 1, 2. Auflage, Berlin/Heidelberg.

    • Pompl, W., (1996): Touristikmanagement 2, Berlin/Heidelberg.

    • Pompl, W., Lieb, M., (1997): Qualitätsmanagement im Tourismus, München/Wien.

    • Pompl, W., Lieb, M., (2002): Tourismus-Management, München.

    • Porter, M.E., (1999): Wettbewerbsstrategien, 10. Auflage, Frankfurt/New York.

    • Rudolph, H., (1999): Tourismus-Betriebswirtschaftslehre, München/ Wien.

    • Roth, P., Schrand, A., (2003): Touristik-Marketing, 4. Auflage, München.


    Slide53 l.jpg

    • Schiava, M., Hafner, M., (1995): Service-Marketing im Tourismus, 4. Auflage, Wien.

    • Schneider, A., (2005): Virtuelle Veranstalter im Praxistest, Köln.

    • Schnyder, W., (2002): Die Zukunft der Airline-Vergütung, Wiesbaden.

    • Schreiber, Th., (1999): Kongress- und Tagungsmanagement, München/Wien

    • Schroeder, G., ( 2002): Lexikon der Tourismuswirtschaft, 4. Auflage, Hamburg.

    • Seitz, E., (2001): Fallstudien zum Tourismus-Marketing, München.

    • Steinecke, A., (2000): Erlebnis- und Konsumwelten, München/Wien.

    • Sterzenbach, R., Conrady, R., (2003): Luftverkehr, 3. Auflage, München/Wien.

    • Voigt, P., (2001): Internationales Reiseveranstaltungsmanagement, München.

    • Viegas, A., (1998): Ökomanagement im Tourismus, München/Wien.

    • Weiermair, K., Wöhler, K., (1998): Personalmanagement im Tourismus, Limburgerhof.

    • Weis, Ch., (1999): Marketing, (Hrsg.) Olfert, K., 11. Auflage, Ludwigshafen.


    Slide54 l.jpg


    Abbrevations l.jpg
    Abbrevations

    • AGAktiengesellschaft

    • AGBAllgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen

    • AGBGAllgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen Gesetz

    • BCGBoston Consulting Group

    • BGBBürgerliche Gesetzbuch

    • BATBritish American Tobacco

    • BSPBillingand Settlement Plan

    • BTMBusiness Travel Management

    • CACanada/USA

    • CSI Customer Satisfaction Index

    • CRSComputer Reservation System

    • DBDeutsche Bahn

    • DCRDifferenz zwischen Business Class und dem Rechnungsbetrag

    • DERDeutsches Reisebüro


    Slide56 l.jpg

    • DMC Destination Management Company

    • DMODestination Marketing Organisation

    • ETIXElectronic Ticket

    • FTIFrosch Touristik International

    • FuEForschung und Entwicklung

    • GDSGlobal Distribution System

    • GFGeschäftführer

    • GfKGesellschaft für Konsumforschung

    • GSA/GVGeneral Sales Agent/General-Vertretung

    • HGBHandelsgesetzbuch

    • HLXHapag Lloyd Express

    • InfVInformations-Verordnung


    Slide57 l.jpg

    • IPKInstitut für Planungs-Kybernetik

    • ITSInternationaler Touristik Service

    • KfWKreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau

    • LCA/LBALow-Cost-Airlines/Low-Budget-Airlines

    • LCCLufthansa City-Center/Low CostCarrier

    • LG Landgericht

    • LTILuft Transport und Immobilien

    • LTSLuft Transport und Service

    • LTULuft Transport Unternehmen (Luft Transport Union)

    • LVGLuftverkehrsgesellschaft

    • MISManagement- oder Marketing-Informations-System

    • NSANorwegische Schifffahrts-Agentur

    • NURNeckermann & Touristik

    • NVAGNeckermann-Versand AG

    • PangVOPreis-Angaben-Verordnung


    Slide58 l.jpg

    • RBReisebüro

    • RMReisemittler, Revenue Management

    • R/NRoom/Night

    • T.O.Reiseveranstalter

    • RVReiseveranstaltung

    • RZRisiko-Zuschlag

    • TCThomas Cook

    • TNTeilnehmer

    • TQ3Total Quality 3

    • TQMTotal Quality Management

    • TUCTUI Urlaubs Center

    • PAFPay-as-you-fly

    • PDPreisdifferenzierung

    • PM Product-Manager

    • POSPoint ofSale


    Slide59 l.jpg

    • PRPublic Relation

    • PTA Prepaid Ticket Advice (Rufpassage)

    • QM Qualitätsmanagement

    • TUITouristik Union International

    • TVGTouristische Vertriebs-Gesellschaft

    • UWGUnlauterer Wettbewerbsgesetz

    • VFVerkaufsförderung

    • WKZWerbekosten-Zuschüsse

    • YMYield Management (Revenue Management)

    • 3BZDreibettzimmer

    • 4BZVierbettzimmer


    ad
  • Login