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Instructional Design Models for School Health Education Synectics Model (Creative Process for Secondary Education) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Instructional Design Models for School Health Education Synectics Model (Creative Process for Secondary Education). Power Point created by Erika Russell Sandra L. Owen Professional Education Faculty Dept. Kinesiology and Health Georgia State University Copyright, 2006.

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Instructional Design Models for School Health Education Synectics Model (Creative Process for Secondary Education)

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Instructional Design Models for School Health EducationSynectics Model (Creative Process for Secondary Education)

Power Point created by Erika Russell

Sandra L. Owen

Professional Education Faculty

Dept. Kinesiology and Health

Georgia State University

Copyright, 2006


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The development of the Synectics Model is attributed to William J. J. Gordon, 1961

“ The basic tools of learning are analogies that serve as connectors between the new and the familiar…good teaching traditionally makes ingenious use of analogies and metaphors to help students visualize content.” (William J.J. Goodman)


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Gordon’s Four Distinct States

  • Detachment & involvement: A change in perspective in which the person moves from distant to the problem to connected and committed to the problem;

  • Deferment: Prevent premature closure and entertain other possible solutions;

  • Speculation: Once free from premature closure, the person can critically consider the consequences of each possible solution;

  • Autonomy of Subject: The feeling that the solution to the problem has taken over and is working itself out; it is that warm feeling of “being right” long before there is a rationale.


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Initial Description

  • What is the problem statement?

  • What are the possible specific factors of the problem?

  • Where in the lesson does detachment & involvement, deferment, speculation, and autonomy occur?

  • Describe how the lesson generates ideas by referring, reflecting, and reconstructing

  • Offer an example of direct, personal, and symbolic analogies specific to the problem

  • Provide lesson goal and objective statements


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Generating Ideas With Synectics

  • Referring involves gathering information and defining the problem

  • Reflecting involves using a variety of techniques to generate ideas

  • Reconstructing involves synthesizing ideas to create a useful solution.


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Generating Ideas With Synectics(Further Discussion)

  • Referring

    • Define problem

    • Research contributing factors

    • Identify typical solutions

  • Reflecting

    • Seek comparisons and associations with other situations that might provide a non-typical solution

    • Comparisons are made through analogies

  • Reconstructing

    • Rationally evaluate ideas generated in the Reflecting Phase bringing them together to form practical and useful solutions


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Three Types of Analogies:Seeking Relationships

  • Direct Analogy: comparison between two things

    Example: Veins are like a plumbing system.

  • Personal Analogy: the student becomes an element within the problem; the goal is empathy

    Example:How would you feel if you were a tree attacked by acid rain?

  • Symbolic Analogy: descriptions that appear to be contradictory, yet are actually creative insight

    Example:When is silence deafening?


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Application of the Synectics Model to the Seven Components of the Health Lesson Plan(example)

Goal Statement

  • The student will understand the relationship between low self-esteem and obesity.

    Objective Statement

  • The student will apply three creative solutions to improving self-esteem.

    Anticipatory Set(Step One: Present the problem, excite interest)

  • Problem: Low self-esteem makes a person more vulnerable to stress, depression, and subsequent weight gain.

  • Activity: Have each student write two derogatory statements about weight; statements are passed on to a peer and read back to the originator; reflections on personal feelings are shared


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Teaching Cues(Step Two: Provide Expert Information)

  • This is where content information would be provided using technology or print materials.

    Teacher Modeling (Explanation for Step 6, explanation of analogies)

  • Direct Analogy: How is your personality like a snowflake?

  • Personal Analogy: What does a personality with low self-esteem look like?

  • Symbolic Analogy: How can you smile

    when everything is going wrong?


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Student Activity (Steps 3-8, this occurs in small groups)

  • Step 3: Brainstorm obvious solutions to the problem, write down solutions, and hand paper in to teacher—these solutions cannot be used in the final outcome

  • Step 4 & 5: Each small group generates several specific problem statements related to the original problem statement and selects one they want to solve. Eg. Retail stores selling designer jeans in only small sizes

  • Step 6: Direct, personal, and

    symbolic analogies are developed


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  • Step 7: Force analogies to fit the problem

  • Step 8: Determine a solution from the new viewpoint

    Evaluation: reflection on the process

  • How unique was the group’s solution to the problem? Explain.

  • How effective was the group in creating new insights together?


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