Infectious skin diseases
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Infectious skin diseases. Defense mechanisms. Physical barrier Chemical and biochemical barrier Biologic barrier Innate immunity Acquired immunity . E. Simko WCVM. Infectious skin diseases - viral. Viral diseases. Poxviruses Macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, crusts. Orthopoxvirus

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Infectious skin diseases

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Infectious skin diseases

Defense mechanisms

  • Physical barrier

  • Chemical and biochemical barrier

  • Biologic barrier

  • Innate immunity

  • Acquired immunity

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - viral

Viral diseases

PoxvirusesMacules, papules, vesicles, pustules, crusts

Orthopoxvirus

Parapoxvirus

Capripoxvirus

Leporipoxvirus

Suipoxvirus

Avipoxvirus

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - viral

Viral diseases

Contagious ecthyma (Parapoxvirus) High morbidity and low mortality

Bovine papular stomatitis

Pseudocowpox (parapoxvirus)Zoonosis (milker's nodules)

Bovine herpes mammillitis virus

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - viral

Other viral infections:

Canine distemperNasodigital hyperkeratosis (hard pad disease)

Foot-and-mouth disease (picornavirus)

Vesicular stomatitis (rhabdovirus)

Swine vesicular disease (picornavirus)

Vesicular exanthema (calicivirus)

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - viral

  • Diagnosis of viral infections:

  • History

  • Gross and histopathology

  • Immunohistochemistry

  • Electron microscopy

  • Viral isolation

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases

Bacterial diseases

Superficial folliculitis

Deep folliculitis

  • Furunculosis

  • Adenitis

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial

Superficial pyodermas

Pathogenesis: bacterial proliferation in epidermis triggers superficial neutrophilic inflammation

  • Superficial pustular dermatitis (impetigo)& folliculitis

  • Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus

  • Dermatophilosis (Bo, Ov, Eq, rare in Ca, Fe)

  • Dermatophilus congolensis

  • Exudative epidermitis of pigs (greasy pig disease)

  • Staphylococcus hyicus

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial

Deep pyodermas

Deep bacterial infections secondary to follicular hyperkeratosis, immunosuppression, trauma et cet

  • Staphylococcal folliculitis and furunculosis (Ca)

  • Subcutaneous abscesses (P. multocida) (Fe)

  • Granulomatous dermatitis M. lepraemurium (Fe)

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial

Pododermatitides of ruminants

  • Footrot - Bacteroides nodosus +/- F. necrophorum

  • Benign (scald) and virulent form

  • Necrobacillosis - F. necrophorum+/- B. melaninogenicus

  • Ovine and bovine interdigital dermatitis

  • Bovine digital dermatitis (strawberry foot)

  • Associated with spirochetes

  • Viral diseases (BVD, MCF, F&M…)

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Bacterial

Systemic bacterial infections

  • Septicemia / endotoxemia

  • S. suis, Salmonella, Erysipelas

  • Clostridial infections

  • (more details in muscle)

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases

Mycotic diseases

Dermatophytosis (ring worm)

  • Microsporum and Trichophyton

  • Zoonosis

  • Fungi invade and damage keratinized tissues initiating

  • inflammation resulting in folliculitis/furunculosis

  • Fungi die in the central areas of inflammation and are

  • viable peripherally forming peripheral red rings.

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Mycotic diseases

Malassezia (M. pachydermatis)

Blastomycosis

Cryptoccocosis

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases

Diagnosis of bacterial and mycotic dz

  • Scraping

  • Cultures

  • Gross and histopathology

  • Nota bene !!!

  • Pyoderma is usually secondary disease obscuring primary disorders

  • Therefore, treat it first and than submit skin biopsy

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases

Ectoparsitic diseases

  • Diseases are due to direct effect of parasites and/or hypersensitivity reaction

  • Diagnosis:

    • Scraping

    • Gross and histopathology

E. Simko WCVM


Infectious skin diseases - Ectoparasites

Demodicosis

  • Demodex canis live in the lumina of hair follicles

  • Transmission occurs during nursing

  • In juvenile dogs and immunocompromised adults

  • Lesions: localized (face and/or forelegs) or

  • generalized scaling, erythema and alopecia

Scabies

  • Sarcoptes scabiei - highly contagious

  • Mites burrow through the stratum corneum and

  • cause intense pruritus (hypersensitivity reaction)

E. Simko WCVM


Keratinization disorders

Keratinization disorders

Seborrheic Disease Complex

  • Abnormal cornification or sebaceous glands function

  • Change from nonpathogenic to pathogenic bacteria

  • Dry or greasy form

  • Primary or secondary

E. Simko WCVM


Morphology of skin lesions - Primary or Secondary

E. Simko WCVM


Nutritional disorders

Nutritional disorders

Zinc and Copper Deficiency

  • Abnormal keratinization and pigmentation

Vitamin A

Vitamin E

E. Simko WCVM


Neoplastic skin diseases

Neoplasia

  • Skin is a common site of neoplasms in most animals

  • Epithelial tumors

  • Mesenchymal tumors

  • Melanocytic tumors

  • Diagnosis

  • Fine needle aspirate

  • Biopsy

E. Simko WCVM


Neoplastic skin diseases

E. Simko WCVM


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