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How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools






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How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools. James F. Bogden National Association of State Boards of Education June 2003. Objectives. Learn who are the decision makers at various levels of the education system Identify strategies for engaging with and influencing education decision makers
How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools

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How schools work and how to work with schools l.jpgSlide 1

How Schools Work andHow to Work with Schools

James F. BogdenNational Association of State Boards of Education

June 2003

Objectives l.jpgSlide 2

Objectives

  • Learn who are the decision makers at various levels of the education system

  • Identify strategies for engaging with and influencing education decision makers

  • Identify strategies for improving school health-related policies and practices

  • Become aware of some of the valuable resources available to school health advocates

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How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools

  • How education works at the school, district, state, and national levels

  • Practical tips for how to work with educators, administrators, and policymakers

  • Updated and expanded 2003

    Order at www.nasbe.org

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Agencies

Government

YOUTH

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A Cast of Thousands

Governor

Legislature

State board of education

Chief state school officer

State level

State education agency staff

Local government

School board

School district level

Superintendent

Central office staff

School improvement council

School level

Principal

School staff

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Key Issues Confronted by Schools

  • Education reform pressures

    • Accountability

      • Students

      • School district

      • School

      • Individual teachers

    • High stakes testing

    • Federal versus state versus local control

  • School finance / funding

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More Key Issues Confronted by Schools

  • Ready-to-learn issues

    • Students enter with extremely different levels of readiness

    • Non-academic barriers to learning

  • Changing demands, expectations, perceptions about public education

    • What is a “good school”?

  • Sustaining support for public education

    • Aging population

    • Economic choices

Who s who at the school level l.jpgSlide 8

Who’s Who at the School Level

  • The principal is key

  • Entry points

    • School improvement team

    • School health council

    • Health and mental health services staff

    • Classroom teachers

    • Parent organizations

    • Student organizations

School improvement council

Principal

School staff

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School Health Advisory Council

  • Tool for identifying priorities and strategies

  • Broad-based representation

    • School personnel

    • Community professionals

    • Parents

    • Students

    • Others?

  • School-level to advise principal

  • District-wide to advise school board

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Guides to School Health Councils

Obtain through your local American Cancer Society chapter or call 1-800-ACS-2345

Iowa Department of Public Healthwww.idph.state.ia.us/fch/fam_serv/advisory.htm

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Who’s Who at the School District Level

In theory….

  • The school board makes policy

  • The superintendent implements it

Local government

School board

Superintendent

Central office staff

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How to Work with School District Leaders

  • Formal approaches

    • Service on board and administration advisory committees

    • Testimony at meetings and public hearings

    • Written communications

  • Informal approaches:

    • Direct contact with board members and administrators

    • Enlist influential “key communicators”

    • Make presentations at meetings and conferences attended by policymakers

Who s who at the state level l.jpgSlide 13

Governor

Legislature

State board of education

Chief state school officer

State education agency staff

Who’s Who at the State Level

  • Become knowledgeable about who has what authority and how they interact

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Preparing a Policy Initiative

  • Monitor agendas, discussions, board processes, and board members’ interests

  • Identify policy gaps

  • Compose rationale for adopting policy

  • Develop key messages and simple strategies

  • Compile accurate data from credible sources

  • Anticipate and prepare for potential conflicts

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Presenting Information

  • Make a brief oral presentation of only the most important points

  • Submit a succinct written rationale

  • Present disparate research findings from credible organizations in a neutral, balanced manner

  • Use clear language (i.e., a minimum of academic, public health, and social services jargon)

  • Unadorned charts and graphs illustrate key findings

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Persuading Education Leaders

  • Note serious problems/needs, but emphasize solutions

  • Link to existing policies, programs, and goals

  • Use current terminology (‘education reform’, ‘ready to learn’, ‘academic achievement’)

  • Highlight school health as an emerging trend

  • Identify policy options

  • Be honest about costs and potential implementation problems

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Moving the Issue Forward

  • Brief sympathetic policymakers on answers to difficult questions that might arise in public meetings

  • Enlist respected community members to express their support

  • Enlist the endorsement of the business community

  • Help students research issues, prepare presentations, and be included on public-hearing agendas

  • Suggest a pilot study if a policy or program does not gain support

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Persistence Pays

  • Respect the hierarchy

  • Stay focused on the ultimate goal

  • Don’t expect quick or easy success

  • Sustain the effort

  • Be willing to compromise…but know your bottom line

  • Don’t burn your bridges

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Useful Resources

  • Data sources

  • Information and guidance

  • Making the case

New York Times

1 data sources l.jpgSlide 20

44

42

41

39

39

33

27

22

20

10

9

3

2

1. Data Sources

Health Education Requirements in U.S. Schools, by Grade

50

40

30

Percent of schools

20

10

0

K

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

9th

10th

11th

12th

Source: CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000

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  • Periodic national survey

  • Assesses policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels

  • In elementary, middle/junior, and senior high schools

  • State report cards on the Internet

www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/shpps/index.htm

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Percent of U.S. high school students who…

 Did not attend physical education class daily 68%

 Ate less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day during the past 7 days 79%

 Drank < 3 glasses of milk per day during the past 7 days84%

 Did not participate in moderate physical activity 74%

www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/yrbs/2001/index.htm

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Annie E. Casey Foundation

  • Annual KIDS COUNT Data Book

  • State-by-state and national indicators of child well-being are available through an interactive online database

  • View state profiles, graphs, maps, and rankings

  • Download raw data

    www.aecf.org/kidscount

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2. Information and Guidance

Cdc s guidelines for school health programs l.jpgSlide 25

Physical Activity

Healthy Eating

CDC’s Guidelines for School Health Programs

www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/healthtopics/guidelines.htm

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Health Is Academic

Health Is Academic : A Guide to Coordinated School Health Programs

Eva Marx, Susan Wooley, Daphne Northrup, eds., 1998, Teachers College Press

www2.edc.org/HealthIsAcademic

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School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide

  • Identify your own school’s strengths and weaknesses

  • Prioritize issues

  • Develop an action plan

  • Involve teachers, students, parents, and community

  • Download free at www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/SHI/index.htm

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National Health Education Standards

Summary at

www.aahperd.org/AAHE

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USDA’s School Meals Initiative

  • Helping school meals become more consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Adding flexibility in procedures used to plan and monitor school menus

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Valuable Resource from USDA

  • Complete action kit

    • action guide

    • resource materials

    • brochures

    • transparencies

    • video

    • CD-ROM

Order free at

www.fns.usda.gov/tn

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Food Research and Action Council

“Working to improve public policies to eradicate hunger and under-nutrition in the United States”

Sample statistic: Percent of Missouri schools participating in the school breakfast program that also participate in the school lunch program: 78%

www.frac.org/

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Major North Carolina Initiative

  • Blueprint for Changing Policies and Environments in Support of Healthy Eating

  • Blueprint for Changing Policies and Environments in Support of Increased Physical Activity

Download free at:

www.eatsmartmovemorenc.com

Nutrition education programs l.jpgSlide 33

Nutrition Education Programs

http://navigator.tufts.edu/index.html

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National Physical Education Standards

Moving Into the Future: National Physical Education Standards: A Guide to Content and Assessment

National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)

www.aahperd.org/naspe

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Fall 2000 Report to the President

Promoting Better Health for Young People Through Physical Activity and Sports

A Report to the President From the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Education

www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/ presphysactrpt/index.htm

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Connecticut PE Guide

Physical Education:

A Guide to K-12 Program Development

www.state.ct.us/sde/dtl/curriculum/pe_publ_guide1.htm

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Physical Activity Ideas for Schools

Active Youth: Ideas for Implementing CDC Physical Activity Promotion Guidelines

www.humankinetics.com

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KidsWalk-to-School

  • Comes with

    • A step-by-step checklist

    • Sample letters, surveys, evaluations, and press releases

    • Safety tips on walking, biking, school bus safety, and stranger danger tips

    • Ideas to make walking to school an active and exciting part of the day.

      www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/ kidswalk/kidswalk_guide.htm

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Wellness Programs For School Staff

PEP—A Personal Energy Plan

www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/pep.htm

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Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide

  • Guide to policymaking

  • Sample policies - download at www.nasbe.org/healthyschools/fithealthy.mgi

  • Full explanations

  • Research findings

  • Notable quotes

  • Excerpts of actual policies

  • Resource lists

Fit healthy and ready to learn a school health policy guide41 l.jpgSlide 41

Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide

A. Overview

B. The Art of Policymaking

C. General School Health Policies

D. Policies to Promote Physical Activity

E. Policies to Promote Healthy Eating

F. Policies to Help Prevent Tobacco Use

G. Policies to Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer

H. Policies to Help Prevent HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Among Young People

I. Policies on the Treatment and Prevention of Asthma at School

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Healthy Youth Funding Database

http://www2.cdc.gov/nccdphp/shpfp/index.asp

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3. Making the Case

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Prevalence of Obesity Among US Adults

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1999

1988-94

1976-80

1963-65

1971-74

All

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

“Super-Sized” Children Ages 6-11

14

12

10

8

Percent

6

4

2

0

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics

Televisions in the home l.jpgSlide 46

Televisions in the Home

1970

1999

Children who live in homes with 3 or more TVs

60%

6%

Sixth graders with a TV in their bedroom

6%

77%

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation. Kids and Media at the New Millenium, 1999

www.kff.org

Average daily time children spent using media l.jpgSlide 47

Ages 8-18

3:16

:45

:27

:31

4:59

Average Daily Time Children Spent Using Media

Ages 2-7

Television

1:59

Videotapes

:29

Video games

:08

Computer

:07

Total

2:43

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation. Kids and Media at the New Millenium, 1999

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At-Risk

Overweight

Missouri

White

Hispanic

Black

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

“Generation XXL” High School Students

35

30

25

20

Percent

15

10

5

0

Girls

Boys

Source: CDC, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2001

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School Health Starter Kit

From:

The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and

The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO)

www.ccsso.org/ starterkit.html

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Building Business Support for School Health Programs

  • Step-by-step action guide

  • Field-tested at the state and local levels in New Mexico

    www.nasbe.org/ NASBE_Bookstore/Safe_Healthy.html

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Effects of Health Risk Behaviors on Academic Performance

  • Education outcomes

    • graduation rates

    • class grades

    • performance on standardized tests

  • Education behaviors

    • attendance

    • dropout rates

    • behavioral problems

    • involvement in school activities such as homework and extracurricular pursuits

  • Student attitudes

    • aspirations for postsecondary education

    • feelings about safety at school

    • positive personal outlook

Wolford-Symons, C. et al., “Bridging student health risks and academic achievement through comprehensive school health programs,” Journal of School Health, 1997

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Increased participation in the breakfast program

Improved attentiveness

Fewer discipline referrals

Fewer visits to the health office

Increased math and reading scores

High teacher and parent satisfaction

From the Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning

http://fns.state.mn.us/energize.pdf

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Opinions of Parents of Adolescents

  • Percent who said that health education is either more important than or as important as other subjects taught in school:

82%

  • Percent who said schools should spend more time or the same amount of time teaching health education as they do for other subjects taught in school:

74%

Source: Gallup Organization for the American Cancer Society, national telephone survey of 1,003 parents of adolescents enrolled in U.S. public schools, 1993

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Opinions of Parents of Children in Grades K-12

  • Want their kids to receive daily physical education:

81%

  • Believe that children should concentrate on academic subjects at school and leave physical activities for after school:

15%

Source: Survey by Opinion Research Corp. based on interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,017 adults, February 2000 (margin of error = +6%)

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Percent of Respondents Who Said Students Should Definitely Know or Be Able to Do Subject Standards by High School Graduation

Average % of

Rank Subject “Definitely” responses

1 Health 74

2 Work skills 63

3 Language arts 59

4 Technology 57

5 Mathematics 50

6 Thinking and reasoning 50

7 Science 49

8 Civics 49

9 Behavioral studies 48

10 Physical education 44

11 Economics 43

12 History 41

www.mcrel.org

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Full Speed Ahead!

Slide57 l.jpgSlide 57

James F. Bogden

Safe and Healthy Schools Project Director

National Association of State Boards of Education

  • Internet: www.nasbe.org/HealthySchools

  • E-mail: jimb@nasbe.org

  • 703-684-4000 x108


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