How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools
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How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools

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Objectives. Learn who are the decision makers at various levels of the education systemIdentify strategies for engaging with and influencing education decision makersIdentify strategies for improving school health-related policies and practicesBecome aware of some of the valuable resources available to school health advocates.
How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools

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1. How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools

2. Objectives Learn who are the decision makers at various levels of the education system Identify strategies for engaging with and influencing education decision makers Identify strategies for improving school health-related policies and practices Become aware of some of the valuable resources available to school health advocates

3. How Schools Work and How to Work with Schools How education works at the school, district, state, and national levels Practical tips for how to work with educators, administrators, and policymakers Updated and expanded 2003 Order at www.nasbe.org

5. A Cast of Thousands

6. Key Issues Confronted by Schools Education reform pressures Accountability Students School district School Individual teachers High stakes testing Federal versus state versus local control School finance / funding NoraNora

7. More Key Issues Confronted by Schools Ready-to-learn issues Students enter with extremely different levels of readiness Non-academic barriers to learning Changing demands, expectations, perceptions about public education What is a ?good school?? Sustaining support for public education Aging population Economic choices NoraNora

8. Who?s Who at the School Level The principal is key Entry points School improvement team School health council Health and mental health services staff Classroom teachers Parent organizations Student organizations BrendaBrenda

9. School Health Advisory Council Tool for identifying priorities and strategies Broad-based representation School personnel Community professionals Parents Students Others? School-level to advise principal District-wide to advise school board

10. Guides to School Health Councils Obtain through your local American Cancer Society chapter or call 1-800-ACS-2345 Third, establish a school health coordinating council. This might be an advisory body, a subcommittee of the school board, or have some other form. Third, establish a school health coordinating council. This might be an advisory body, a subcommittee of the school board, or have some other form.

11. Who?s Who at the School District Level In theory?. The school board makes policy The superintendent implements it BrendaBrenda

12. Formal approaches Service on board and administration advisory committees Testimony at meetings and public hearings Written communications Informal approaches: Direct contact with board members and administrators Enlist influential ?key communicators? Make presentations at meetings and conferences attended by policymakers How to Work with School District Leaders BrendaBrenda

13. Who?s Who at the State Level Become knowledgeable about who has what authority and how they interact NoraNora

14. Preparing a Policy Initiative Monitor agendas, discussions, board processes, and board members? interests Identify policy gaps Compose rationale for adopting policy Develop key messages and simple strategies Compile accurate data from credible sources Anticipate and prepare for potential conflicts

15. Presenting Information Make a brief oral presentation of only the most important points Submit a succinct written rationale Present disparate research findings from credible organizations in a neutral, balanced manner Use clear language (i.e., a minimum of academic, public health, and social services jargon) Unadorned charts and graphs illustrate key findings

16. Persuading Education Leaders Note serious problems/needs, but emphasize solutions Link to existing policies, programs, and goals Use current terminology (?education reform?, ?ready to learn?, ?academic achievement?) Highlight school health as an emerging trend Identify policy options Be honest about costs and potential implementation problems

17. Moving the Issue Forward Brief sympathetic policymakers on answers to difficult questions that might arise in public meetings Enlist respected community members to express their support Enlist the endorsement of the business community Help students research issues, prepare presentations, and be included on public-hearing agendas Suggest a pilot study if a policy or program does not gain support

18. Persistence Pays Respect the hierarchy Stay focused on the ultimate goal Don?t expect quick or easy success Sustain the effort Be willing to compromise?but know your bottom line Don?t burn your bridges

19. Useful Resources

20. 1. Data Sources Before you can plan on making improvements, you need to know what the current situation is and the unmet needs. I want to clue you in on just a few useful data sources to help and the education decision makers you work with to understand the needs.Before you can plan on making improvements, you need to know what the current situation is and the unmet needs. I want to clue you in on just a few useful data sources to help and the education decision makers you work with to understand the needs.

21. Periodic national survey Assesses policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels In elementary, middle/junior, and senior high schools State report cards on the Internet Describe SHPPS This is an excerpt from Missouri?s ?report card? on the Internet, from the School Health Services section. As you can see, it helps to pinpoint what the state requires and does not require.Describe SHPPS This is an excerpt from Missouri?s ?report card? on the Internet, from the School Health Services section. As you can see, it helps to pinpoint what the state requires and does not require.

22. How many of you have heard of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, called the YRBS? How many of your districts have participated in it? This is a massive survey conducted every two years by CDC to gauge the health behaviors of young people. It asks high school students in a nationwide random survey about what they are doing across a range of topics from violence to drugs to sex. In addition to the national sample, states have the option of conducting their own YRBS. In 2001, 40 states including Missouri conducted scientifically valid surveys. This is some 2001 Missouri data. This information can be enormously useful. Legislators want to see Missouri data if they are to be convinced that MO youth are at risk. This information can help to plan appropriate programs, and to assess whether those programs are having any effect. I urge all of you to participate in the YRBS if you are asked to. How many of you have heard of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, called the YRBS? How many of your districts have participated in it? This is a massive survey conducted every two years by CDC to gauge the health behaviors of young people. It asks high school students in a nationwide random survey about what they are doing across a range of topics from violence to drugs to sex. In addition to the national sample, states have the option of conducting their own YRBS. In 2001, 40 states including Missouri conducted scientifically valid surveys. This is some 2001 Missouri data. This information can be enormously useful. Legislators want to see Missouri data if they are to be convinced that MO youth are at risk. This information can help to plan appropriate programs, and to assess whether those programs are having any effect. I urge all of you to participate in the YRBS if you are asked to.

23. Annie E. Casey Foundation

24. 2. Information and Guidance

25. CDC?s Guidelines for School Health Programs During the 1990?s CDC?s Division of Adolescent and School Health prepared several sets of Guidelines for School Health Programs, on physical activity, healthy eating, and tobacco use prevention. Just last December they released another set of guidelines on violence and injury prevention (but I don?t have a picture), and they will soon come out with yet another set on skin cancer prevention. CDC has compiled and synthesized in these documents a comprehensive range of scientific research findings and best practices. The guidelines represent the best description of the scientific foundations of school health programs. How many of you have used any of these guidelines documents?During the 1990?s CDC?s Division of Adolescent and School Health prepared several sets of Guidelines for School Health Programs, on physical activity, healthy eating, and tobacco use prevention. Just last December they released another set of guidelines on violence and injury prevention (but I don?t have a picture), and they will soon come out with yet another set on skin cancer prevention. CDC has compiled and synthesized in these documents a comprehensive range of scientific research findings and best practices. The guidelines represent the best description of the scientific foundations of school health programs. How many of you have used any of these guidelines documents?

26. Health Is Academic

27. School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide The School Health Index was developed by CDC to help bring its guidelines to life, to help schools turn theory into action and implement actual programs. It is designed to help a local school team assess its current situation, determine priorities for action, and develop specific plans. It is also designed to get a broad variety of people involved in the effort.The School Health Index was developed by CDC to help bring its guidelines to life, to help schools turn theory into action and implement actual programs. It is designed to help a local school team assess its current situation, determine priorities for action, and develop specific plans. It is also designed to get a broad variety of people involved in the effort.

28. National Health Education Standards

29. USDA?s School Meals Initiative Helping school meals become more consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adding flexibility in procedures used to plan and monitor school menus In most place the school food service program can be made more healthful. For the last few years USDA has been working hard to assure that school food programs follow the dietary guidelines for Americans, which call for less fat and more vegetable and grains. Recent studies have shown that on average school meals have improved substantially, though they are still not fully there yet. How many of you think the meals served in your school or district are generally healthful? In most place the school food service program can be made more healthful. For the last few years USDA has been working hard to assure that school food programs follow the dietary guidelines for Americans, which call for less fat and more vegetable and grains. Recent studies have shown that on average school meals have improved substantially, though they are still not fully there yet. How many of you think the meals served in your school or district are generally healthful?

31. Food Research and Action Council

32. Major North Carolina Initiative Blueprint for Changing Policies and Environments in Support of Healthy Eating Blueprint for Changing Policies and Environments in Support of Increased Physical Activity

33. Nutrition Education Programs Tufts University sponsors a useful program - a panel of nutritionists scores and rates websites, and highlights the best ones. Tufts University sponsors a useful program - a panel of nutritionists scores and rates websites, and highlights the best ones.

34. National Physical Education Standards

36. Connecticut PE Guide This is a good national model.This is a good national model.

37. Physical Activity Ideas for Schools This company, Human Kinetics, publishes a large number of good PE resourcesThis company, Human Kinetics, publishes a large number of good PE resources

38. KidsWalk-to-School This is a CDC project to help communities develop and implement year-long walk-to-school initiatives.This is a CDC project to help communities develop and implement year-long walk-to-school initiatives.

39. Wellness Programs For School Staff This is a resource on CDC?s web site ? others are available too. When it got a special school health grant from CDC to implement the 8 components, West Virginia began with staff wellness. It was a shrewd decision, because teachers became personally enthusiastic about health issues and they in turn enthused their students. It also became a lot easier to later implement the other components.This is a resource on CDC?s web site ? others are available too. When it got a special school health grant from CDC to implement the 8 components, West Virginia began with staff wellness. It was a shrewd decision, because teachers became personally enthusiastic about health issues and they in turn enthused their students. It also became a lot easier to later implement the other components.

40. Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide

41. A. Overview B. The Art of Policymaking C. General School Health Policies D. Policies to Promote Physical Activity E. Policies to Promote Healthy Eating F. Policies to Help Prevent Tobacco Use G. Policies to Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer H. Policies to Help Prevent HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Among Young People I. Policies on the Treatment and Prevention of Asthma at School Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide

42. Healthy Youth Funding Database

43. 3. Making the Case So let?s look at some of the policy suggestions.So let?s look at some of the policy suggestions.

44. Prevalence of Obesity Among US Adults A lot of data and resources are available to anyone over the Internet. This is from CDC. The prevalence of overweight among U.S. adults increased by 61% from 1991 to 2000.A lot of data and resources are available to anyone over the Internet. This is from CDC. The prevalence of overweight among U.S. adults increased by 61% from 1991 to 2000.

45. ?Super-Sized? Children Ages 6-11 What about the children? Here is data about elementary school age children from another survey conducted from the National Center for Health Statistics. Unfortunately, we don?t have any more recent data than this. But does anyone expect that the trend has not continued?What about the children? Here is data about elementary school age children from another survey conducted from the National Center for Health Statistics. Unfortunately, we don?t have any more recent data than this. But does anyone expect that the trend has not continued?

46. Televisions in the Home The Kaiser Family Foundation has lots of useful statisticsThe Kaiser Family Foundation has lots of useful statistics

47. Average Daily Time Children Spent Using Media

48. ?Generation XXL? High School Students This great title came from a Newsweek cover story. Here I want to demonstrate you how you can use PowerPoint to help bring the dry statistics of the YBRS alive to make your case with policymakers and the public. As you can see, 7% of young women in high school and 14% of young men nationwide are considered seriously overweight, or obese. I should mention that the way they determine this among children and adolescents is different than among adults. In this case, students who are at or above the 95th percentile of height/weight/age measures on standard growth rates are considered overweight. Another large group of students are considered ?at risk? of overweight. These are adolescents who fall between the 85th and 95th percentiles. About 30% of young men nationwide fall into one of these categories. If you break the data down by grade level, the rates do not change much between grades 9 and 12. However, it is interesting to break it down by racial/ethnic group. Like so many other health problems, students of color are disproportionately impacted. Finally, here is Missouri data. Comparing it with the first set, you can see that Missouri?s rates are higher than national averages.This great title came from a Newsweek cover story. Here I want to demonstrate you how you can use PowerPoint to help bring the dry statistics of the YBRS alive to make your case with policymakers and the public. As you can see, 7% of young women in high school and 14% of young men nationwide are considered seriously overweight, or obese. I should mention that the way they determine this among children and adolescents is different than among adults. In this case, students who are at or above the 95th percentile of height/weight/age measures on standard growth rates are considered overweight. Another large group of students are considered ?at risk? of overweight. These are adolescents who fall between the 85th and 95th percentiles. About 30% of young men nationwide fall into one of these categories. If you break the data down by grade level, the rates do not change much between grades 9 and 12. However, it is interesting to break it down by racial/ethnic group. Like so many other health problems, students of color are disproportionately impacted. Finally, here is Missouri data. Comparing it with the first set, you can see that Missouri?s rates are higher than national averages.

49. School Health Starter Kit

50. Building Business Support for School Health Programs Step-by-step action guide Field-tested at the state and local levels in New Mexico www.nasbe.org/ NASBE_Bookstore/ Safe_Healthy.html

51. Effects of Health Risk Behaviors on Academic Performance Education outcomes graduation rates class grades performance on standardized tests Education behaviors attendance dropout rates behavioral problems involvement in school activities such as homework and extracurricular pursuits

52. From the Minnesota Department of Children, Families, and Learning Increased participation in the breakfast program Improved attentiveness Fewer discipline referrals Fewer visits to the health office Increased math and reading scores High teacher and parent satisfaction Here is a great study you might all want to look at. This is result of a three-year pilot study in Minnesota schools where they implemented school breakfasts in such a way they were well-integrated into the school day. They took pains to ensure the program did not stigmatize students from low-income families. They made it easy and convenient for ALL students to eat. They documented real results in a number of domains, including that Holy Grail of all education policymakers, increased math and reading scores. Let me repeat that?increased math and reading scores! The message we?ve been telling our members is clear: If you are truly serious about making sure that ALL student can reach challenging academic standards, then instituting a school breakfast program is one of those activities every school MUST have.Here is a great study you might all want to look at. This is result of a three-year pilot study in Minnesota schools where they implemented school breakfasts in such a way they were well-integrated into the school day. They took pains to ensure the program did not stigmatize students from low-income families. They made it easy and convenient for ALL students to eat. They documented real results in a number of domains, including that Holy Grail of all education policymakers, increased math and reading scores. Let me repeat that?increased math and reading scores! The message we?ve been telling our members is clear: If you are truly serious about making sure that ALL student can reach challenging academic standards, then instituting a school breakfast program is one of those activities every school MUST have.

53. Opinions of Parents of Adolescents Percent who said that health education is either more important than or as important as other subjects taught in school:

54. Opinions of Parents of Children in Grades K-12 Want their kids to receive daily physical education:

55. Percent of Respondents Who Said Students Should Definitely Know or Be Able to Do Subject Standards by High School Graduation

56. Full Speed Ahead!


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