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SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB Lidija Štefić ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I DERIVATION COMPOUNDING CONVERSION BORROWING WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH DERIVATION AFFIXATION AFFIXES COMBINING WORD SUFFIXES PREFIXES ROOT (STEM) BASIC WORD STRUCTURE Word root :

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SCHOOL OF DENTAL MEDICINE

UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Lidija Štefić

ENGLISH IN DENTAL MEDICINE I


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DERIVATION

COMPOUNDING

CONVERSION

BORROWING

WORD FORMATION IN ENGLISH


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DERIVATION

AFFIXATION

AFFIXES

COMBINING

WORD

SUFFIXES

PREFIXES

ROOT (STEM)


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BASIC WORD STRUCTURE

Word root:

gingiv/al

root (gums)

Suffix:

gingiv/itis

suffix (inflammation)

Prefix::

sub/gingiv/al

prefix (below)

Combining word::

electr/o/cardi/o/gram

root

suffix

prefix

combining vowel


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DERIVE FROM

Latin

Greek

SUFFIXES IN DENTAL MEDICINE

a word added at the end of a word or word base (root)

to change its meaning.


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SURGICAL PROCEDURE SUFFIXES

Incision


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Plastic operations (repair, rebulid, reconstruct, bind)


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Refracturing, loosening, crushing


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DIAGNOSTIC AND SYMPTOMATIC SUFFIXES


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SUFFIXES: ADJECTIVE ENDINGS

The adjective endings that mean “pertaining to” are:


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SUFFIXES: NOUN ENDINGS


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DERIVE FROM

Latin

Greek

PREFIXES IN DENTAL MEDICINE

at the beginning of a word


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PREFIXES OF DIRECTION


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PREFIXES OF POSITION


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PREFIXES OF NUMBER AND MEASUREMENT


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PREFIXES OF COLOUR


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PREFIXES OF NEGATION


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MISCELLANEOUS PREFIXES


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COMBINING FORMS


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ANATOMY

Anatomy (from the Greekἀνατομία anatomia, from ἀνατέμνειν ana:

separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open)

is a branch of biology

It is the study of exernal and internal structures

and the physical realationships

between body parts

Microscopic

-cytology

-histology

Macroscopic (gross)

-surface

-regional

systemic


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HYSTORY OF ANATOMY

Hippocrates of Kos(Greek: Ἱπποκράτης)

Claudius Aelius Galenus

(AD 129 – 200)

ca. 460 BC - ca. 370 BC


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Canon of Medicine

Ibn al-Nafis

1213-1288

1484


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Leonardo da Vinci

Anatomy Lesson of dr.Nicolaes Tulp

1632

Rembrandt

1606 - 1669

1452 - 1519


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Anton Van Leeuwenhoek

1632 - 1723


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Robert Hooke’s microscope

The scanning electron microscope (SEM)


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Anatomy employs two chief methods of study - the systemic and

topographic.In the former the body is regarded as consisting of systems

and organs.

The divisions of systemic anatomy are:


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Dental medicine takes into consideration other branches of systemic

anatomy such as : embriology,genetics,endocrinology and dermatology.

Pathological anatomy is the study of diseased organs.

sections of normal anatomy applied to various purposes receive

special namessuch as

medical,surgical, ginaecological, artistic and superficial anatomy


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Structural Organisation of the Body

Organs, Systems

Body Cavities


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Organs and Systems

Tissues  Patterns  Various Organs

Organs = several kinds of tissue

viscera (lat.) = internal organs (sing. viscus)

Systems = groups of organs working together and performing complex functions


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Gastrointestinal System

  • Mouth, pharynx,

  • oesophagus, stomach,

  • intestines

  • (small and large),

  • liver, gallbladder, pancreas


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Excretory System

Kidneys, ureters,

urinary bladder,

urethra


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Respiratory System

Nose, pharynx, larynx,

trachea, bronchial

tubes, lungs


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Reproductive System

Female: Ovaries,

fallopian tubes,

uterus, vagina,

mammary glands


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Reproductive System

Male: testes

and associated tubes,

urethra, penis,

prostate gland


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Endocrine System

Thyroid gland,

pituitary gland, sex glands,

adrenal glands,

pancreas,

parathyroid glands,

pineal gland, thymus gland


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Nervous System

Brain, spinal cord,

nerves, and collection

of nerves


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Cardiovascular System

Heart, blood vessels

(arteries, veins and

capillaries),

lymphatic vessels

and nodes,

spleen, thymus gland


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Muscular System

Muscles


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Skeletal System

Bones and joints

(articulations)


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Integumentary System

Skin, hair, nails and

associated glands

(sweat or sudoriferous

and sebaceous

or oil glands)


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Body Cavities

Body cavity = space

within the body

containing the

internal organs (viscera).


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Cranial Cavity

Brain


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Thoracic Cavity

  • Subdivided into:

    • -Pleural Cavities:

    • area surrounding the lungs

    • -The Mediastinum: area between the lungs; contains heart, aorta, trachea, oesophagus, and thymus gland


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Abdominal Cavity

Stomach, small and large

intestines, spleen, liver,

gallbladder, pancreas,

kidneys

Surrounded by

peritoneum


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Pelvic Cavity

Urinary bladder,

urethra, ureters;

uterus and vagina

in the female


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Spinal Cavity

Spinal cord and

nerves of the spinal

cord


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Glossary

tissue = tkivo

cavity = šupljina

gallbladder = žučni mjehur

pancreas = gušterača

spleen = slezena

thymus gland = prsna žlijezda

thyroid gland = štitnjača


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MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

  • BONES

  • JOINTS

  • MUSCLES


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BONES


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Bones are complete organs, composed

of connective tissue called osseous tissue

Dense connective tissue includes the

cartilage and bone

It consists of osteocytes surrounded by

intercellular substance filled with

calcium salts


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It is composed of an outer hard layer and an inner,spongy core.

Compact tissue- forms the outer layer of bones, it is arranged in concentric layers with a hollow centre which carries blood vessels and nerves.


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The inner spongy core- forms the inside of bones, it has the yellow and red bone marrow.

- the yellow bone marrow stores fat cells (leucocytes).

- the red bone marrow contains red cells (erythrocytes).


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External surface of bone is covered by

periosteum- it has the function

of feeding the bone


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Several hormones regulate the activity of the bone cell

  • Osteoblasts- they are immature

  • osteocytes which produce the bony tissue

  • that replaces cartilage during ossification


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2) Osteoclasts- they reabsorb bony tissue thus enlarging the inner bone cavity so that the bone does not become overly thick and heavy

- parathyroid gland stimulates osteoclasts to remove bone and to stimulate osteoblasts to build up the bone


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It secretes a hormone to release

calcium from bone, bones become weakened

due to loss of calcium.


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CRANIAL BONES

  • Frontal

  • Parietal

  • Temporal

  • Occipital

  • Sphenoid

  • Ethmoid


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FACIAL BONES

  • Nasal

  • Lacrimal

  • Maxillary

  • Mandibular

  • Zygomatic

  • Vomer


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The Mandible


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The Maxilla


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The Palate


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JOINTS

junctions (meeting places called articulations)

between two or more bones.

SYNARTHROSES

DIARTHROSES


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TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ)


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Elevation

Depression

Protraction

Retraction

FOUR MOVEMENTS OF TMJ:


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MUSCLES

fromLatin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse"

Myologyis the branch of anatomy dealing with the muscles,

muscular tissue components, structure and functions.

Striated - Voluntary

Smooth - Involuntary

Cardiac


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MASTICATORY MUSCLES

Temporal Muscle

Masseter Muscle

Lateral (External)

Pterygoid Muscle

Digastric Muscle

(Anterior Portion)


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Temporal Muscle


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Masseter Muscle


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Lateral (External) Pterygoid Muscle


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Digastric Muscle(Anterior Portion)


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FACIAL MUSCLES

Orbicularis oris

– the sphincter of the mouth

The buccinator

- a deep muscle of the cheek


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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


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Dendrite

Axon Terminal

Node of

Ranvier

Soma

Schwann cell

Axon

Nucleus

Myelin sheath

NERVE TISSUE

Neuroglia

Neurons

Neuron


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SYNAPSE

Greek "syn-" ("together") and "haptein" ("to clasp").

synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons

signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.


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THE BRAIN


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CRANIAL NERVES

There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.Olfactory IOptic IIOculomotor IIITrochlear IVTrigeminal VAbducens VIFacial VIIAuditory (vestibulocochlear) VIIIGlossopharyngeal IXVagus XSpinal Accessory XIHypoglossal XII


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THE CIRCULATORY AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM


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BLOOD AND OTHER BODY FLUIDS

Fluids constitute over

half of an adult’s weight

under normal conditions

These fluids are vital

in the transport of

nutrients to all cells


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Blood is composed of:

liquid (plasma) – 55%

formed elements ( erythrocytes,

leukocytes and platelets) – 45 %


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Plasma consists of about:

- 90% of water

7% proteins

less than 1%

inorganic salts,

organic substances, dissolved gases,

hormones, antibodies

and enzymes


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Many important proteins

such as serum, albumin,

gamma globulin and

fibrinogen are dissolved

in the plasma


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Fibrinogen is essential in the clotting process


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All blood cells originate from hemocytoblasts

They change from undifferentiated form into

specialized or differentiated

Hematopoiesis: :


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Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to

the body tissues, and carbon dioxide

from the tissues to the lungs:


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Erythrocytes

The great majority of

all blood cells

35 trillion in the

average adult

Total surface area almost

the size of a football field


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Hemoglobin enables carrying oxygen from the

lungs to the tissues


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Red blood cells are

stored in the spleen

They live for about

110 to 120 days

About 180 million

erythrocytes are

destroyed every

minute


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Leukocytes

Body’s primary

defense against

Infections

These cells are larger

than erythrocytes and

fewer in number

Blood has about 8000

leukocytes per cubic

millimeter


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  • Classification of leukocytes

  • Granulocytes ( neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)

    2. Agranulocytes (monocytes, lynphocytes)


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Neutrophils form

about 70%, and

limphocytes about

20% of the total

number


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Platelets (thrombocytes)

Small clear disk-shaped bodies

About 1/3 the size of erythrocytes

25000 platelets per one cubic millimeter of blood

They initiate blood clotting


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Platelets disintegrate

and adhere to the

edges of the injured

tissue


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Blood coagulation (clotting)

The process by which the body

prevents blood loss

Bleeding generally stops within

5 minutes

A thrombus can form

within a vessel


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Defects in blood vessels (owing to injury or disease)

  • Anemia

  • Neutropenia

  • Human immunodeficiency

  • virus (HIV)

  • Leukimia

  • Thrombocytopenia

  • Hemophilia


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BLOOD TRANSFUSION

BLOOD GROUPS


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Four main blood groups

Type O = universal donorsType AB = universal recipients


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Rhesus factor - Rh

Another important factor, called Rh factor must also be considered in blood typing. This is a very complex system : 8 principal variants of the Rh factor are known, and there are others not yet identified and grouped. For practical reasons there are 2 main groups of Rh types:

Rh positive

Rh negative


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Blood diseases

Blood parasites

Christmas disease

Hemophilia

Malaria

Septicemia

Vitamin K deficiency

Hemoglobin C,S,E disease


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Vitamin K deficiency


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Anemia


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Malaria


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Hemophilia


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THE CIRCULATORY AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM


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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

The cardiovascular system is composed of the

heart, blood vessels and blood. The circulatory

system consists of the heart, blood vessels and

lymphatics. This system transports food,

oxygen, and other vital substances to all body

cells and picks up waste products for disposal.


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THE HEART

The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that

pumps blood through the blood vessels. It is

enclosed in a fibrouserous sac called

pericardium. The heart beats over 100.000

times per day. It weights about one half pound

and is the size of clenched fist


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The heart has three distinctive layers of tissue:

The endocardium

The myocardium

The epicardium

The heart is divided into four chambers:

Right atrium

Right ventricle

Left atrium

Left ventricle


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BLOOD VESSELS

ARTERIES

carry blood from the heart to the body tissues and organs

VEINS

carry blood back to the heart from body organs and tissues

CAPILLARIES

connect arterioles to venules.


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LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Lymph fluid

Capillaries

Lymphatic vessels

Lymphatic ducts

Lymph nodes


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FUNCTION

Transporting fluids from tissues back to the bloodstream

Aiding in the control of infection caused by microorganisms

Conveyance of lipids or fats away from the digestive organs


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Lymph nodes of the human head and neck

Regional lymph tissue


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THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system is

basically a long, muscular

tube that begins at the

mouth and ends at the anus


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The functions of the

digestive system are

threefold


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Digestive enzymes are substances that speed up

chemical reactions and help in the breakdown of

complex nutrients

Digestion can be defined as a complete process of

changing the chemical and physical composition of food

in order to facilitate assimilations of the nourishing

ingredients of flood by the cells of the body


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The gastrointestinial (GI) tract begins at the oral cavity or mouth


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THE MOUTH

The mouth is the first division of the digestive tube

and is separable into two parts, smaller external

part, the vestibule formed by the lips cheek, gums

and teeth and a larger part, the mouth proper (oral)

cavity behind the gums and teeth


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Lips and cheeks

Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans

and many animals.

Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food

intake , and in the articulation of speech,

as a tactile sensory organ as an erogenous organ used

in kissing and other acts of intimacy.


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Cheeks (Latin: buccae) constitute the area of the

face below the eyes and between the nose

and the left or right ear.


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Gums and teeth


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Gingiva are part of the soft tissue lining of the mouth.

They surround the teeth and provide a seal around them.

Compared with the soft tissue linings of the lips and cheeks,

most of the gingiva are tightly bound to the underlying bone

and are designed to resist the friction of food passing

over them. Healthy gingiva is usually coral pink,

but may contain physiologic pigmentation.

Changes in color, particularly increased redness,

together with edema and an increased tendency to bleed,

suggest an inflammation(gingivitis)


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Teeth (singular, Tooth) are small whitish structures

found in the jaws(or mouths) of many vertebrates

that are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew food

Humans usually have 20 primary teeth

(also called deciduous, baby, or milk teeth)

and 32 permanent teeth. Among primary teeth,

10 are found in the (upper) maxilla and the other

10 in the (lower) mandible.

Teeth are classified as incisors, canines,premolars

and molars .


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The main functions of the teeth:

Incisors = cutting

Canines = tearing

Premolars = crushing

Molars = grinding


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The tongue

The tongue is skeletal muscle on the floor of the

mouth that manipulates food for

chewing and swallowing (deglutition).


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  • The main functions of the tongue:

    • It moves food around in the mouth

    • It begins swallowing action (deglutition)

    • It aids in speech production

    • It provides the equipment for taste sensation


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