DNA. DNA. Chromosomes, Eukarotic. Chromosomes, Bacterial. Note: Closed, Circular, Singular, and Haploid. Gene. E. coli = 5 million bp Phage T4 = 170,000 bp. Gene. Alleles. Big Difference between many Eucaryotes and most Bacteria: Bacteria, as Haploids, Express all of their Alleles.
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Note: Closed, Circular, Singular, and Haploid
E. coli = 5 million bp
Phage T4 = 170,000 bp
Big Difference between many Eucaryotes and most Bacteria:
Bacteria, as Haploids, Express all of their Alleles
Alleles simply are different Nucleotide Sequences found at the same Location on Different Chromosomes
Usually the differences are quite subtle, e.g., one or two nucleotides different
New Alleles arise via Mutation
The new Allelles may or may not be Functionally Different
Prototrophic: microbes that live on a minimal growth medium + inorganic salts + energy source.
Auxotrophic: mutant microbes must be supplied with certain additional nutrients to grow.
Prototrophs are killed
Unaffected by penicillin because then are not dividing
Killed by penicillin AdditionSelecting for Auxotrophs
Wash cells, remove penicillin and grow auxotrophs!
Certain viruses have genes consisting of single-stranded RNA
These viruses can be either plus-stranded or minus-stranded
Plus-stranded RNA can serve as mRNA
Minus-stranded RNA serve as templates for the synthesis of mRNA