cse1301 computer programming lecture 1 computer systems overview
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CSE1301 Computer Programming: Lecture 1 Computer Systems Overview. eureka!. Algorithm : A set of instructions describing how to do a task (or process). Program : C. Topics. Hardware components Computer networks. Collector. Base. Emitter. Transistor. “semi-conductor”.

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slide2

eureka!

Algorithm:

A set of instructions describing how to do a task (or process)

Program: C

topics
Topics
  • Hardware components
  • Computer networks
transistor

Collector

Base

Emitter

Transistor

“semi-conductor”

  • Binary digit or “bit”:
    • 0 off
    • 1  on
transistor cont
Transistor (cont)

Collector

Base

Emitter

off : 0

transistor6
Transistor

Collector

Base

Emitter

on : 1

transistor7

Collector

Base

Emitter

Transistor

Modern-day “chips” (about 3 x 3 mm in size) can contain millions of transistors

gates

AND Gate

NOT Gate

OR Gate

Gates
  • Gate: a group of transistors
  • Gates are switches that distinguish between two electrical voltages:
    • No voltage  0
    • Low voltage  1
  • Types:
example and gate

A

A AND B

B

A

A

B

A AND B

0

0

B

0

1

1

0

1

1

A AND B

Example: AND Gate
gates and boolean algebra

OR Gate

A OR B

Gates and Boolean Algebra

AND Gate

A

B

A AND B

0

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

gates and boolean algebra cont12
Gates and Boolean Algebra (cont)

A sequence of bits at a time:

A =

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1

B =

0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0

A AND B =

  • Most PCs do 32 bits at a time (“32-bit machines”), others as many as 128 bits at a time
slide13

0or1

  • Gates are the basic building blocks of computers
hardware components of a typical computer
Hardware Components of a Typical Computer

Peripheral

Devices

Central

Processing

Unit (CPU)

Memory

  • "Buses" allow components to pass data to each other
hardware components of a typical computer cpu

Peripheral

Devices

Central

Processing

Unit (CPU)

Memory

Hardware Components of a Typical Computer -- CPU

Central Processing Unit(CPU)

  • performs the basic operations
  • consists of two parts:
    • Arithmetic / Logic Unit (ALU) - data manipulation
    • Control Unit - coordinate machine’s activities
hardware components of a typical computer memory

Peripheral

Devices

Central

Processing

Unit (CPU)

Memory

Hardware Components of a Typical Computer -- Memory

Main Memory

  • holds programs and data
  • stores bits in fixed-sized chunks: “word” (8, 16, 32, or 64 bits)
  • each word is stored in a cell, which has a unique address
  • the cells can be accessed in any order  random-access memory or “RAM”
bits bytes kilo mega giga
Bits, Bytes, Kilo-, Mega-, Giga-, …
  • A bit: 0 or 1
  • A word: chunk of bits (8, 16, 32 or 64 bits)
  • a byte = 8 bits
  • a kilobyte = 210 bytes = 1024 bytes
  • a megabyte = 1024 KB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes
  • a gigabyte = 1024 MB = 230 bytes
  • a terabyte = 1024 GB = 240 bytes
hardware components of a typical computer peripherals

Peripheral

Devices

Central

Processing

Unit (CPU)

Memory

Hardware Components of a Typical Computer -- Peripherals

Peripheral devices–

  • communicate with the outside world
  • store data long term
slide19

Peripheral

Devices

Central

Processing

Unit (CPU)

Memory

Hardware Components of a Typical Computer – Peripheral Devices that Communicate with the Outside World
  • Input/Output (I/O)
    • Input: keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, sensors (camera, infra-red), punch-cards
    • Output: video, printer, audio speakers, etc
  • Communication
    • modem, ethernet card
hardware components of a typical computer peripheral devices that store data long term
Hardware Components of a Typical Computer – Peripheral Devices that Store Data Long Term

Secondary (mass) storage

Stores information for long periods of time as files

  • Examples:hard drive, floppy disk, tape, CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory), flash drive
features of computers speed cpu speed
Features of Computers – SpeedCPU Speed
  • CPU clock speed: in cycles per second ("hertz")
    • Example: 700MHz Pentium III, 3GHz Pentium IV
  • but different CPU designs do different amounts of work in one clock cycle
  • “flops” (floating-point operations per second)
  • “mips” (million instructions per second)
features of computers speed system clock bus speed
Features of Computers – SpeedSystem-Clock/Bus Speed
  • communication between CPU, memory and peripheral devices
  • depends on main board (a.k.a. "motherboard") design
    • Examples:
      • Intel 1.50GHz Pentium-4 works on a 400MHz bus speed
      • 50MHz, 60MHz, 66MHz, 100Mhz, 133MHz, and rising
features of computers speed memory access speed
Features of Computers – SpeedMemory-Access Speed
  • RAM
    • about 60ns (1 nanosecond = a billionth of a second), and getting faster
    • may be rated with respect to “bus speed’’ (e.g., PC-100)
  • Cache memory
    • faster than main memory (about 20ns access speed), but more expensive
    • contains data which the CPU is likely to use next
features of computers speed peripheral device speed
Features of Computers – Speed Peripheral-Device Speed
  • Mass storage
    • Examples:
      • 3.5in 1.4MB floppy disk: about 200kb/sec at 300 rpm (revolutions per minute)
      • Hard drive: up to 160 GB of storage, average seek time about 6 milliseconds, and 7,200 rpm
  • Communications
    • Examples: modems at 56 kilobits per second, and network cards at 10 or 100 megabits per second
  • I/O
    • Examples: ISA, PCI, IDE, SCSI, ATA, USB, etc....
features of computers reliability
Features of Computers -- Reliability

Factors that affect reliability:

  • heat, ventilation, “over-clocking”, power surges
  • Most system failures are due to software flaws rather than hardware
modes of communication

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

  • Serial communication:
    • one bit at a time

1

0

Modes of communication
  • Parallel communication:
    • all the bits are transferred at the same time
    • each bit on a separate line
modems mo dulator dem odulator
Modems (MOdulator-DEModulator)

Modem

Remote

Computer

Digital

Data

Audio signal

phone lines

Home

Computer

Digital

Data

Modem

computer networks
Computer Networks
  • Types
    • Local Area Networks (LAN)
      • Computers in an organization
        • Example: the PCs in the lab
    • Long Haul Networks
      • Separated by hundreds or thousands of miles
      • Physical wires, telephone lines, satellites, etc
        • Example: Internet “backbone”
computer networks method of communication
Computer Networks– Method of Communication
  • Each computer has an address
    • Example: IP address of www.monash.edu.au is 130.194.11.4
  • A sender computer transmits data through the network in packets; each packet is tagged with the destination and return address
    • When data is too big to fit in one packet, the sender computer can split the data into several packets, labeled in sequence
computer networks method of communication cont
Computer Networks– Method of Communication (cont)
  • The packets are sent via links from computer to computer (“routing”)
  • Each intermediate computer receives and retransmits the message (“hops”)
    • The packets do not necessarily arrive in the order in which they were sent
  • The recipient computer puts the packets in correct sequence and retrieves the data
summary
Summary
  • Transistors, gates, chips, hardware
  • Computer = CPU + Memory + I/O Devices
  • Networks, modems
  • Jargon and acronyms
further reading
Further Reading
  • Brookshear:
    • 4/e (1994): 1.1, 1.2, 2.6, 3.8
    • 5/e (1997): 1.1 - 1.3, 2.6, 3.5
    • 6/e (2000): 1.1 - 1.3, 2.5, 3.5
  • Deitel&Deitel (2/e)
    • 1.2 to 1.5