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California - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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California. Geography. State v Culture Area (NOT same) Central Valley, Mountain, Coastal Rich marine, valley, & mountain Each w/dif. Resources/restrictions Bounded by Sierras, & Plateau. Subsistence. Generally Hunting and Gathering Agriculture possible, but not necessary

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geography
Geography
  • State v Culture Area (NOT same)
  • Central Valley, Mountain, Coastal
  • Rich marine, valley, & mountain
  • Each w/dif. Resources/restrictions
  • Bounded by Sierras, & Plateau
subsistence
Subsistence
  • Generally Hunting and Gathering
  • Agriculture possible, but not necessary
  • North and central regions had much more available food
    • Coast
      • Fish (halibut, salmon, sturgeon, and others)
      • Whale
      • Seal
      • Otter
      • Shellfish
    • Inland
      • Fish (halibut, salmon, sturgeon, and others)
      • Bear
      • Elk
      • Deer
      • Pronghorn
      • Sheep
    • All
      • Acorn
      • Pine nuts
      • Camas
      • Mesquite beans (in south)
technology
Technology
  • Utilized a variety of materials
    • Tule reeds
    • Grasses
    • Wood and bark
    • Bone
    • Shell
    • Stone, ground and flaked
    • Skins
technology5
Technology
  • Types of technology varied depending on materials in a particular environment and specific needs of the local population
    • Canoes
      • Dugout (northern coastal, some valley)
      • Plank (southern coastal)
      • Tule reed (valley)
    • Housing
    • Food Acquisition/Processing
social organization
Social Organization
  • Sedentary in north and central region, more mobile in south
  • Riverine or coastal settlement pattern in north, seasonal in south
  • Kroeber and the “Tribelet”
    • Predicted +/- 500 tribelets of +/- 500 persons in each (WAY underestimated)
    • Bean notes 12 just among the Cahuilla, with 50 distinct lineages throughout!
    • Hereditary (male) headman of wealth and prestige
    • Central village and satellites
    • Not bands as one might expect
    • Requires aid of shaman to “rule” (males in south, any in north)
    • Could be deposed
    • Tribelet is autonomous
social organization16
Social Organization
  • Lineages traced back 3-5 generations
  • Bridewealth common in north
  • North tends to matrilineal, patrilineal in south
  • Southern folks had loosely organized clans
  • Tribelets seemed to be generally peaceful with nearby, linguistically similar neighbors
beliefs
Beliefs
  • Animatism & animism
  • Individual shamans have power, male or female, through visions & demos
  • Elaborate rituals (Kuksu the Healer, White Deerskin and Jumping Dances, Toloache, First Salmon Rites)
additional issues21
Additional Issues
  • Trade for Salt, Stone, Shells
  • Mission Period (1769-1821)
    • Assimilation
    • Conversion
    • Resource Acquisition
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