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California. Geography. State v Culture Area (NOT same) Central Valley, Mountain, Coastal Rich marine, valley, & mountain Each w/dif. Resources/restrictions Bounded by Sierras, & Plateau. Subsistence. Generally Hunting and Gathering Agriculture possible, but not necessary

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Geography l.jpg
Geography

  • State v Culture Area (NOT same)

  • Central Valley, Mountain, Coastal

  • Rich marine, valley, & mountain

  • Each w/dif. Resources/restrictions

  • Bounded by Sierras, & Plateau


Subsistence l.jpg
Subsistence

  • Generally Hunting and Gathering

  • Agriculture possible, but not necessary

  • North and central regions had much more available food

    • Coast

      • Fish (halibut, salmon, sturgeon, and others)

      • Whale

      • Seal

      • Otter

      • Shellfish

    • Inland

      • Fish (halibut, salmon, sturgeon, and others)

      • Bear

      • Elk

      • Deer

      • Pronghorn

      • Sheep

    • All

      • Acorn

      • Pine nuts

      • Camas

      • Mesquite beans (in south)


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Technology

  • Utilized a variety of materials

    • Tule reeds

    • Grasses

    • Wood and bark

    • Bone

    • Shell

    • Stone, ground and flaked

    • Skins


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Technology

  • Types of technology varied depending on materials in a particular environment and specific needs of the local population

    • Canoes

      • Dugout (northern coastal, some valley)

      • Plank (southern coastal)

      • Tule reed (valley)

    • Housing

    • Food Acquisition/Processing


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Social Organization

  • Sedentary in north and central region, more mobile in south

  • Riverine or coastal settlement pattern in north, seasonal in south

  • Kroeber and the “Tribelet”

    • Predicted +/- 500 tribelets of +/- 500 persons in each (WAY underestimated)

    • Bean notes 12 just among the Cahuilla, with 50 distinct lineages throughout!

    • Hereditary (male) headman of wealth and prestige

    • Central village and satellites

    • Not bands as one might expect

    • Requires aid of shaman to “rule” (males in south, any in north)

    • Could be deposed

    • Tribelet is autonomous


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Social Organization

  • Lineages traced back 3-5 generations

  • Bridewealth common in north

  • North tends to matrilineal, patrilineal in south

  • Southern folks had loosely organized clans

  • Tribelets seemed to be generally peaceful with nearby, linguistically similar neighbors


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Beliefs

  • Animatism & animism

  • Individual shamans have power, male or female, through visions & demos

  • Elaborate rituals (Kuksu the Healer, White Deerskin and Jumping Dances, Toloache, First Salmon Rites)


Languages penutian hokan uto aztecan issue penutian invasion l.jpg
LanguagesPenutianHokanUto-AztecanIssue: Penutian Invasion?



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Additional Issues

  • Trade for Salt, Stone, Shells

  • Mission Period (1769-1821)

    • Assimilation

    • Conversion

    • Resource Acquisition


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