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Bio 250: Human Anatomy. Spring 2005 Respiratory System. Respiratory System. Provide Body w/ Oxygen Remove Carbon Dioxide Respiration Pulmonary Ventilation External Respiration Transport of Respiratory Gases Internal Respiration. Organs of Respiratory System. Nose Nasal Cavity Pharynx

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bio 250 human anatomy

Bio 250: Human Anatomy

Spring 2005

Respiratory System

respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Provide Body w/ Oxygen
  • Remove Carbon Dioxide

Respiration

  • Pulmonary Ventilation
  • External Respiration
  • Transport of Respiratory Gases
  • Internal Respiration
organs of respiratory system
Organs of Respiratory System
  • Nose
  • Nasal Cavity
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs
  • Diaphragm
respiratory system zones
Respiratory System Zones

Respiratory Zone

  • Actual Site of gas exchange
    • Bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

Conducting Zone

  • No gas exchange
    • Warms, humidifies, cleanses air
slide6
Nose

Functions:

  • Airway for respiration
  • Moistens and warms air
  • Filter and cleanses air
  • Resonating chamber for speech
  • Olfactory (smell) receptors
  • External Nose includes the bridge, apex, & nares (nostrils).
nasal cavity
Nasal Cavity
  • Lies deep and posterior to external nose
  • Internal Nares
  • Hard / Soft Palate
  • Olfactory / Respiratory Mucosa
  • Superior, Middle, Inferior Conchae
paranasal sinuses
Paranasal Sinuses
  • Help to lighten the skull
  • Warm and moisten air
  • Help to produce mucus
pharynx
Pharynx
  • Connects nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx
  • Extends from base of skull to C6
  • Three distinct regions:
  • Nasopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharynx
nasopharynx
Nasopharynx
  • Lies above point where food enters
  • Serves only as an air passageway
  • Soft palate closes off during swallowing
    • Uvula
  • Contains ciliated epithelium
    • Helps to propel mucus
oropharynx
Oropharynx
  • Lies posterior to the oral cavity
  • Serves as food and air passageway
  • Contains stratified squamous epithelium
    • Protection from friction, chemical trauma
laryngopharynx
Laryngopharynx
  • Lies inferior to Oropharynx
  • Serves as food and air passageway
  • Lined with stratified squamous epithelium
    • Protection from friction, chemical trauma
larynx
Larynx
  • Also known as the Voice Box

Functions:

  • Provide open airway.
  • Directs air and food to proper channels.
  • Voice production.
larynx cont
Larynx (Cont.)

Parts of the Larynx:

  • Thyroid Cartilage
    • (Laryngeal Prominence – Adam’s Apple)
  • Cricoid Cartilage
  • Hyoid Bone
  • Epiglottis
  • True Vocal Folds
  • False Vocal Folds
voice production
Voice Production
  • Air flowing through the Glottis
  • Pitch varies with tension of vocal folds
  • Loudness varies with force of airstream
  • Males typically have larger larynx
    • Reason men have deeper voices
  • Laryngitis: inflammation of vocal folds
trachea
Trachea
  • Also known as the windpipe
  • Descends inferiorly from the larynx
  • Very flexible and mobile structure
  • Divide into 2 primary Bronchi

3 Layers of Tracheal Wall:

  • Mucosa: internal layer
  • Submucosa: middle layer
  • Adventitia: external layer
the bronchial tree
The Bronchial Tree

Conducting Zone:

  • Primary (Principal) Bronchi
  • Secondary (Lobar) Bronchi
  • Tertiary (Segmental) Bronchi
  • Conducting Bronchioles /

Terminal Bronchioles

the bronchial tree cont
The Bronchial Tree (Cont.)

Respiratory Zone:

  • Respiratory Bronchioles
  • Alveolar Ducts
  • Alveoli
anatomy of lungs
Anatomy of Lungs
  • Apex – superior portion
  • Base – inferior portion
  • Right Lung – 3 lobes
    • Upper, middle, lower lobes
    • Horizontal, oblique fissures
  • Left Lung – 2 lobes
    • Upper, lower lobes
    • Oblique fissure
    • Cardiac Notch
lung blood supply
Lung Blood Supply
  • Pulmonary Arteries
    • Receives de-oxygenated blood from heart
  • Pulmonary Veins
    • Delivers oxygenated blood back to heart
  • Bronchial Arteries
    • Supplies lung tissue with blood
pleurae
Pleurae
  • Double-layered tissue
  • Decreases friction between lungs, body
  • Parietal Pleura
    • Covers thoracic wall, diaphragm
  • Visceral (Pulmonary) Pleura
    • Covers external lung surface
  • Pleural Fluid, Pleural Cavity
  • Atelectasis, Pneumothorax, Hemothorax
pulmonary ventilation
Pulmonary Ventilation

Inspiration

  • Action of the diaphragm
  • Action of the intercostal muscles
  • Accessory muscles

Expiration

Usually a passive process (no muscles)

pulmonary ventilation cont
Pulmonary Ventilation (Cont.)
  • Eupnea: normal breathing (12-20/min)
  • Bradypnea: <12 breaths/min
  • Tachypnea: >20 breaths/min
  • Dyspnea: SOB, labored breathing
  • Apnea: no breathing
    • Sleep Apnea
  • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
    • Waking up out of breath
infant respiratory distress syndrome irds
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS)
  • Surfactant
    • Natural substance produced in lungs
    • Decreases friction within alveoli
    • Keeps the alveoli from collapsing
  • IRDS
    • Premature infants at risk (1-2 months)
    • Treated with positive pressure, natural/synthetic surfactant
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Common Features:

  • Almost all have history of smoking
  • Dyspnea – labored breathing
  • Coughing, frequent pulmonary infections
  • Most develop respiratory failure
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd1
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Obstructive Emphysema

  • Permanent enlargement of alveoli
  • Eventual deterioration of alveolar walls
  • Lungs become less elastic
    • Ability to return to resting state
    • Difficulty with expiration
    • Barrel Chest
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd2
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Bronchitis:

  • Irritants lead to excessive mucus production
  • Obstruct the airways, impair ventilation
  • Pulmonary infections very common
asthma
Asthma

Common Characteristics:

  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest Tightness

Combination of Bronchospasm, Inflammatory Processes

tuberculosis tb
Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Caused by airborne bacteria
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Common Symptoms
    • Fever, night sweats, weight loss, racking cough, spitting blood
lung cancer
Lung Cancer
  • Main cause is cigarette smoking
  • Most prevalent type of malignancy

Most Common Types:

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Epithelium of bronchi
  • Adenocarcinoma
    • Peripheral lung areas
  • Small Cell Carcinoma
    • Lymphocytes from primary bronchi
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