Bio 250 human anatomy
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Bio 250: Human Anatomy. Spring 2005 Respiratory System. Respiratory System. Provide Body w/ Oxygen Remove Carbon Dioxide Respiration Pulmonary Ventilation External Respiration Transport of Respiratory Gases Internal Respiration. Organs of Respiratory System. Nose Nasal Cavity Pharynx

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Bio 250: Human Anatomy

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Bio 250 human anatomy

Bio 250: Human Anatomy

Spring 2005

Respiratory System


Respiratory system

Respiratory System

  • Provide Body w/ Oxygen

  • Remove Carbon Dioxide

    Respiration

  • Pulmonary Ventilation

  • External Respiration

  • Transport of Respiratory Gases

  • Internal Respiration


Organs of respiratory system

Organs of Respiratory System

  • Nose

  • Nasal Cavity

  • Pharynx

  • Larynx

  • Trachea

  • Bronchi

  • Lungs

  • Diaphragm


Respiratory system zones

Respiratory System Zones

Respiratory Zone

  • Actual Site of gas exchange

    • Bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

      Conducting Zone

  • No gas exchange

    • Warms, humidifies, cleanses air


Bio 250 human anatomy

Nose

Functions:

  • Airway for respiration

  • Moistens and warms air

  • Filter and cleanses air

  • Resonating chamber for speech

  • Olfactory (smell) receptors

  • External Nose includes the bridge, apex, & nares (nostrils).


Nasal cavity

Nasal Cavity

  • Lies deep and posterior to external nose

  • Internal Nares

  • Hard / Soft Palate

  • Olfactory / Respiratory Mucosa

  • Superior, Middle, Inferior Conchae


Paranasal sinuses

Paranasal Sinuses

  • Help to lighten the skull

  • Warm and moisten air

  • Help to produce mucus


Pharynx

Pharynx

  • Connects nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx

  • Extends from base of skull to C6

  • Three distinct regions:

  • Nasopharynx

  • Oropharynx

  • Laryngopharynx


Nasopharynx

Nasopharynx

  • Lies above point where food enters

  • Serves only as an air passageway

  • Soft palate closes off during swallowing

    • Uvula

  • Contains ciliated epithelium

    • Helps to propel mucus


Oropharynx

Oropharynx

  • Lies posterior to the oral cavity

  • Serves as food and air passageway

  • Contains stratified squamous epithelium

    • Protection from friction, chemical trauma


Laryngopharynx

Laryngopharynx

  • Lies inferior to Oropharynx

  • Serves as food and air passageway

  • Lined with stratified squamous epithelium

    • Protection from friction, chemical trauma


Larynx

Larynx

  • Also known as the Voice Box

    Functions:

  • Provide open airway.

  • Directs air and food to proper channels.

  • Voice production.


Larynx cont

Larynx (Cont.)

Parts of the Larynx:

  • Thyroid Cartilage

    • (Laryngeal Prominence – Adam’s Apple)

  • Cricoid Cartilage

  • Hyoid Bone

  • Epiglottis

  • True Vocal Folds

  • False Vocal Folds


Voice production

Voice Production

  • Air flowing through the Glottis

  • Pitch varies with tension of vocal folds

  • Loudness varies with force of airstream

  • Males typically have larger larynx

    • Reason men have deeper voices

  • Laryngitis: inflammation of vocal folds


Trachea

Trachea

  • Also known as the windpipe

  • Descends inferiorly from the larynx

  • Very flexible and mobile structure

  • Divide into 2 primary Bronchi

    3 Layers of Tracheal Wall:

  • Mucosa: internal layer

  • Submucosa: middle layer

  • Adventitia: external layer


The bronchial tree

The Bronchial Tree

Conducting Zone:

  • Primary (Principal) Bronchi

  • Secondary (Lobar) Bronchi

  • Tertiary (Segmental) Bronchi

  • Conducting Bronchioles /

    Terminal Bronchioles


The bronchial tree cont

The Bronchial Tree (Cont.)

Respiratory Zone:

  • Respiratory Bronchioles

  • Alveolar Ducts

  • Alveoli


Anatomy of lungs

Anatomy of Lungs

  • Apex – superior portion

  • Base – inferior portion

  • Right Lung – 3 lobes

    • Upper, middle, lower lobes

    • Horizontal, oblique fissures

  • Left Lung – 2 lobes

    • Upper, lower lobes

    • Oblique fissure

    • Cardiac Notch


Lung blood supply

Lung Blood Supply

  • Pulmonary Arteries

    • Receives de-oxygenated blood from heart

  • Pulmonary Veins

    • Delivers oxygenated blood back to heart

  • Bronchial Arteries

    • Supplies lung tissue with blood


Pleurae

Pleurae

  • Double-layered tissue

  • Decreases friction between lungs, body

  • Parietal Pleura

    • Covers thoracic wall, diaphragm

  • Visceral (Pulmonary) Pleura

    • Covers external lung surface

  • Pleural Fluid, Pleural Cavity

  • Atelectasis, Pneumothorax, Hemothorax


Pulmonary ventilation

Pulmonary Ventilation

Inspiration

  • Action of the diaphragm

  • Action of the intercostal muscles

  • Accessory muscles

    Expiration

    Usually a passive process (no muscles)


Pulmonary ventilation cont

Pulmonary Ventilation (Cont.)

  • Eupnea: normal breathing (12-20/min)

  • Bradypnea: <12 breaths/min

  • Tachypnea: >20 breaths/min

  • Dyspnea: SOB, labored breathing

  • Apnea: no breathing

    • Sleep Apnea

  • Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea

    • Waking up out of breath


Infant respiratory distress syndrome irds

Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS)

  • Surfactant

    • Natural substance produced in lungs

    • Decreases friction within alveoli

    • Keeps the alveoli from collapsing

  • IRDS

    • Premature infants at risk (1-2 months)

    • Treated with positive pressure, natural/synthetic surfactant


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Common Features:

  • Almost all have history of smoking

  • Dyspnea – labored breathing

  • Coughing, frequent pulmonary infections

  • Most develop respiratory failure


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd1

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Obstructive Emphysema

  • Permanent enlargement of alveoli

  • Eventual deterioration of alveolar walls

  • Lungs become less elastic

    • Ability to return to resting state

    • Difficulty with expiration

    • Barrel Chest


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd2

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Chronic Bronchitis:

  • Irritants lead to excessive mucus production

  • Obstruct the airways, impair ventilation

  • Pulmonary infections very common


Asthma

Asthma

Common Characteristics:

  • Coughing

  • Wheezing

  • Dyspnea

  • Chest Tightness

    Combination of Bronchospasm, Inflammatory Processes


Tuberculosis tb

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Caused by airborne bacteria

    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • Common Symptoms

    • Fever, night sweats, weight loss, racking cough, spitting blood


Lung cancer

Lung Cancer

  • Main cause is cigarette smoking

  • Most prevalent type of malignancy

    Most Common Types:

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    • Epithelium of bronchi

  • Adenocarcinoma

    • Peripheral lung areas

  • Small Cell Carcinoma

    • Lymphocytes from primary bronchi


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