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Archaeology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Archaeology. 4th Edition. Chapter 1. Meet Some Real Archaeologists. Outline. Introduction The Western World Discovers Its Past Founders of Americanist Archaeology Revolution in Archaeology: An Advancing Science Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century Conclusion: Archaeology's Future.

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4th Edition

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Chapter 1

Meet Some Real Archaeologists

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  • Introduction

  • The Western World Discovers Its Past

  • Founders of Americanist Archaeology

  • Revolution in Archaeology: An Advancing Science

  • Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century

  • Conclusion: Archaeology's Future

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First Archaeologist

  • Most historians list Nabonidus, the last king of the neo-Babylonian Empire as the “first archaeologist”.

  • Nabonidus rebuilt temples of ancient Babylon and searched the foundations for inscriptions of earlier kings.

  • He looked for answers to questions about the past in physical residues of antiquity.

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The Western World Discovers Its Past

  • Fifteenth-century Italian scholar Ciriaco de’ Pizzicolli established the modern discipline of archaeology.

  • He translated the Latin inscription on the triumphal arch of Trajan in Ancona, Italy.

  • He devoted his life to studying ancient monuments, copying inscriptions, and promoting the study of the past.

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Archaeology’s Alphabet Soup

  • BC - “before Christ”

    • Example: 3200 BC; letters follow the date.

  • AD - anno Domini, “in the year of the Lord”

    • A year after the birth of Christ. Letters are before the date - AD 1066.

    • The earliest AD date is AD 1. There is no AD 0 (use 0 BC to denote that date), double numbering is not allowed.

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Archaeology’s Alphabet Soup

  • BP - “before present”

    • Many archaeologists are more comfortable using this age estimate with AD 1950 selected as the zero point.

  • A date in lower case, such as 3200 b.c. , denotes a date derived by radiocarbon methods and reflects radiocarbon years rather than calendar years.

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Boucher de Perthes

  • In 1836, Perthes found ancient tools and bones of extinct mammals in the gravels of the Somme River.

  • He believed these proved the existence of ancient man.

  • Current religious thought was that human beings had only been on earth for 6000 years, so many didn’t believe him.

  • Some suggested the tools were produced by lightning, elves, or fairies.

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More Discoveries

  • More finds were made in the gravel pits at St. Acheul and in southern England.

  • Respected British paleontologist Hugh Falconer and other scholars declared their support for Perthes’ findings in 1859.

  • This began the recognition that life was more ancient than Biblical scholars argued and human culture had evolved over time.

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British Archaeology

  • These discoveries led to two divergent courses for British archaeology:

    • The problems of remote geological time and the demonstration of long-term human evolution.

    • The archaeology of ancient Greece and Rome, a field now known as classical archaeology.

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Archaeology and Native Americans

  • American scholars saw living Native Americans as relevant to interpretation of archaeological remains.

  • Many Europeans saw Native Americans as “living fossils,” relics of times long past.

  • New World archaeology became connected to the study of living Native American people.

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Elements Peculiar to New World Archaeology

  • Racist, anti–American Indian theories that dominated early 19th century American scholars.

  • The form of antiquity legislation in North America.

  • The fact that many Native Americans still do not trust conventional Western scholarship to interpret their past.

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Branches of Archaeology

  • Classical archaeology - Studies civilizations of the Mediterranean, such as Greece and Rome, and the Near East.

  • Ethnology - Deals with the comparative study of cultures.

  • Americanist archaeology - Evolved in association with anthropology in the Americas; it is practiced throughout the world.

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C. B.Moore: Genteel Antiquarian

  • At age 40, Moore was introduced to American archaeology and transformed himself from gentleman socialite to gentleman archaeologist.

  • Moore was an antiquarian, more interested in objects of the past than in reconstructing the lives of the people who produced them or in explaining the past.

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  • Any movable object that has been used, modified, or manufactured by humans.

  • Artifacts include stone, bone, and metal tools; beads and other ornaments; pottery; artwork; religious and sacred items.

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  • Refuse deposit resulting from human activities, generally consisting of sediment.

  • Food remains such as charred seeds, animal bone, and shell; and discarded artifacts.

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Nels Nelson: America’s First “Working” Archaeologist

  • Nelson learned largely by experience.

  • His first responsibility was to record what he saw, then to conduct a preliminary excavation where warranted, and finally to offer tentative inferences to be tested by subsequent investigators.

  • Nelson typified the early 20th century archaeologists, who strongly believed that archaeology should be brought to the public.

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A. V. “Ted” Kidder: Founderof Anthropological Archaeology

  • Helped shift Americanist archaeology toward more anthropological purposes.

  • Maintained archaeology should be viewed as “that branch of anthropology which deals with prehistoric peoples,” a doctrine that has become firmly embedded and expanded in today’s Americanist archaeology.

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James A. Ford: A Master of Time

  • Refined techniques to place the stages of pottery development in sequential order, a process known as seriation.

  • By assuming that cultural styles change gradually, archaeologists can chart a style through time and across space.

  • Ford’s seriation technique established the baseline prehistoric chronology still used in the American Southeast.

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Walter W. Taylor: Moses in the Wilderness

  • Combined lines of evidence to create a picture of what the past was like and to discuss the functions of artifacts, features, and sites.

  • Urged archaeologists to forsake temples for garbage dumps.

  • Proposed that archaeologists quantify their data and test hypotheses that would refine their impressions.

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Culture History

  • The kind of archaeology practiced in the early to mid-twentieth century.

  • It “explains” differences or changes over time in artifact frequencies by positing the diffusion of ideas between neighboring cultures or the migration of a people who had different mental templates for artifact styles.

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Trait List

  • A simple listing of a culture’s material and behavioral characteristics, for example, house and pottery styles, foods, degree of nomadism, particular rituals, or ornaments.

  • Trait lists were used primarily to trace the movement of cultures across a landscape and through time.

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Conjunctive Approach

  • As defined by Walter W. Taylor, using functional interpretations of artifacts and their contexts to reconstruct daily life of the past.

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Lewis R. Binford:Visionary with a Message

  • Binford argued that archaeologists should acquire data that make samples more representative of the populations from which they were drawn.

  • He urged archaeologists to look beyond the individual site to the region so entire cultural systems could be reconstructed.

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New Archaeology

  • An approach to archaeology that arose in the 1960s emphasizing the understanding of underlying cultural processes and the use of the scientific method.

  • Today’s version of the “new archaeology” is sometimes called processual archaeology.

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Kathleen A. Deagan:Archaeology Comes of Age

  • A curator at the Florida Museum of Natural History, she specializes in Spanish colonial studies.

  • She is concerned with the people and culture behind the artifact and with explaining the social and cultural behaviors that she reconstructs from archaeology.

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History of Archaeology: A Summary

  • In North America, archaeology began as the pastime of the curious and the wealthy, who lacked formal training.

  • Archaeology as a formal discipline dates to the mid nineteenth century and was characterized by a scientific approach and rigorous methods of excavation and data collection.

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History of Archaeology: A Summary

  • By the 1950s, archaeology began to move beyond description and chronology to focus on the reconstruction of past lifeways.

  • This continued in the 1960s, with the addition of efforts to employ a scientific approach aimed at discovering universal laws and to develop theories to explain the human history uncovered by archaeology.

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Archaeology Today

  • Today, archaeology covers both prehistoric and historic archaeology.

  • The number of archaeologists has grown dramatically since the 1960s.

  • The field represents many different theoretical perspectives and acknowledges the need to communicate results to the public.

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1. Fifteenth-century Italian scholar Ciriaco de’ Pizzicolli is considered the “first archaeologist”.

  • True

  • False

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Answer: B. False Pizzicolli is considered the “first archaeologist”.

  • Most historians list Nabonidus, the last king of the neo-Babylonian Empire as the “first archaeologist”.

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2. Pizzicolli is considered the “first archaeologist”.The earliest AD date is AD 0.

  • True

  • False

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Answer: B. False Pizzicolli is considered the “first archaeologist”.

  • The earliest AD date is AD 1. Use 0 BC to denote AD 0.

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3. Which of the following is an example of an Pizzicolli is considered the “first archaeologist”.artifact:

  • Metal tools

  • Beads and other ornaments

  • Pottery

  • Religious and sacred items

  • All of the above

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Answer: E Pizzicolli is considered the “first archaeologist”.

  • Metal tools, beads and other ornaments, pottery and religious and sacred items are examples of artifacts.