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2. Early Statehood Ante-bellum– simply means the period of time before the Civil War. 1817-1861

3. Capitol Dispute Although a Majority of Mississippians lived in the Natchez District, the small farmers and people living in the eastern part of the state wanted a capitol that was closer to them. They Believed that Washington was too small, and near the merchant and planter elite of Natchez.

4. Assembly Hall – de France’s Tavern In Washington, MS Known as Assembly Hall because of its use by the Territorial government. Plans to restore the structure were underway when it burned in 1993.

5. Capitol Moves In 1821, the legislature formed a committee to locate a capital in the center of the state. They choose Lefleur’s Bluff on the Pearl River. They named the town Jackson after the Battle of New Orleans hero Andrew Jackson.

6. Old Capital

7. The Constitution of 1832 The early 19th century saw several changes in the country. One of the changes is the way that the common man was viewed. These years are known as the Era of the Common Man because most white males in the U.S. gained the right to vote and hold office.

8. Andrew Jackson This change was evident with the election of Andrew Jackson as President in 1828. He was the first common President; he gained popularity from his battles against the British and Indians in the War of 1812.

9. Indian Removal Indian lands and villages were not part of the state and therefore were not governed by them. At first the Federal Government pursued the policy of Assimilation. This is a theory stating that if Indians relied on agriculture, they would need less land and could co-exist with settlers.

10. Indian Removal Assimilation was not successful, and settlers and squatters wanted the land the Native Americans possessed. They wanted all of the Indians moved West of the Mississippi River.

11. Indian Removal A series of Treaties were negotiated between the federal government and the Native American tribes. These treaties that were signed granted the Indians money, supplies, and land west of the MS River in return for millions of acres of land.

13. Native American Treaties in Mississippi 1801- Treaty of Fort Adams 1805- Treaty of Mount Dexter 1816- Treaty of 1816 1820- Treaty of Doak’s Stand 1830- Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek 1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek

14. Mississippi Land Cessions

15. Ancient Chickasaw Domain. Map from Arrell M. Gibson's The Chickasaw, 1971

16. Young Chickasaw Warrior

17. Choctaw Chief Mushulatubbee Sketched by George Catlin in the 1830s

18. 1816 Treaty

19. Tready of Doak’s Stand

20. Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek

21. Trail of Tears Finally after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was signed, the Indians gave up their remaining lands and agreed to move to Oklahoma. This journey made to Oklahoma was known as The Trail of Tears. Mainly because of the number of people who died along the way.

23. Indians Remaining in Mississippi By 1860 there were about 1,000 Choctaw in MS. In the early 1900’s the federal government established the present reservation in Neshoba county and permitted tribal Government. Today the Choctaw Reservation has multiple industries and businesses.

25. Economics of the Period

26. Economics of the Period The most important economic development of this time period was the growth of Cotton Production. The cotton gin was developed by Eli Whitney in 1793. It made it easier to separate the cottonseeds from the cotton fibers.

28. Plantations Most of the cotton was grown on large farms called Plantations. The owners of plantations were not only agriculturalist, but also businessmen and investors. They could afford to build the largest homes, throw big parties, entertain political leaders, and send their kids to schools in the east or in Europe.

30. D’Evereux

31. Longwood

32. Dunleith

33. Magnolia Hall

34. Rosalie

36. Slavery By 1840 there were more blacks in the state than whites. Most slaves were concentrated in the areas where most of the cotton was produced. About half of the slave owners owned no more than 5 slaves, and only 19 slave owners had more than 300 slaves.

37. Duties of the Slaves Most slaves worked in the Field. They cleared trees, hoed the land, and prepared it for cotton planting. They worked cultivating, hoeing the weeds, and picking the cotton. A typical work day would last from sunrise to sunset.

38. House Servants A much smaller number of slaves were house servants in large plantations. They did not have to endure the long hours in the fields, they enjoyed better food, clothing, and treatment by their owners.

39. Skilled Artisans On large plantations, skilled artisans were needed to do brick work, blacksmithing, carpentry, and other such skills. They were often hired out to other owners who needed work done, and could sometimes earn enough money to buy their freedom.

40. Field Workers If the owner did not live on the farm, an Overseer was hired to be the boss man. Under his guidance, work started at sunrise and ended at sunset. During harvest time, days were even longer.

42. Treatment of slaves Discipline: The most common form of discipline was the Whip. Slaves could be whipped at the owner’s discretion. Its value was limited because an injured slave couldn’t work until they recovered. It also destroyed what little spirit they had to work. There was ALWAYS a threat of punishment.

43. Incentives, Diet, and Families Incentives: For good work a slave might be rewarded with extra clothing, time off from work, or even money. Diet: Slaves had enough food (usually pork and cornmeal) but what they ate wasn’t nutritious to maintain good health. Families could and would be broken up at any time. Either from separating families at the auction block or being sold from the plantations.

44. Restrictions for Slaves They needed written permission to leave the plantation. They were not allowed to read or write. Any gathering, even religious had to have a white observer present. They could not testify in court. They could not marry. They could not own firearms or ammunition They could not engage in any form of business.

45. Slaves weren’t Completely Submissive Slaves formed strong bonds of affection between men and women that would serve as their marriage. Several learned to read and write. They adopted Christianity. They would secretly have religious meetings, and the songs they sang became known as “Old Negro Spirituals” very beautiful hymns still sung today.

47. Slaves strike Back At times slaves would strike back their owners. Some owners were killed trying to discipline the slave. While others were poisoned at the Dinner Table.

48. Slave Revolts Nat Turner led a rebellion in Virginia that caused the deaths of 60 whites and 100 slaves. Whites feared revolts of the slaves so much that even a rumor would cause a slave to be beaten or killed. There were no major revolts in Mississippi, but in Madison county, blacks and whites were killed because of fear of a revolt.

49. Subtle Resistance Whites were told what they wanted to hear, but often valuable machinery would break down. Barns, cotton gins, and cotton bails would burn, and therefore work would slow down.

50. Free Blacks Most of the free blacks lived in towns like Natchez and Vicksburg. William Johnson: He was the most prominent of the free blacks in MS. He was a barber who owned town lots, a farm, and even slaves. He was murdered in public, but the white killers were not prosecuted because the witnesses were black, and they couldn’t testify in court.

51. Slavery etc… If blacks were freed, they usually had to leave the state. There was a fear that they might lead other slaves to revolt. Overall the treatment of slaves depended on the personality of the plantation owner. Some owners treated certain slaves better than others.

52. War Clouds Problems and differences were brewing between the southern states and the Northern States during the mid 1800’s. There were many differences between the two regions.

53. North vs. South South The south was agricultural. The south relied mainly on cash crops like cotton and was tired of sending their cotton to the north who made clothes from the cotton and sold them back to the south making more money. Slavery was legal in the south. North The north was industrial. The north did not allow slavery.

54. Slavery Issue Northerners wanted new land to be free soil, while Southerners wanted it to be slave soil. If either side got their way, there would be an imbalance of power in the U.S. Senate and laws could be passed one way or the other.

55. Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise of 1821 kept things cool for a while. Missouri was allowed into the Union as a slave state, while Maine came in as a free state. The senate remained balanced. Differences were still there though, and compromises couldn’t solve them completely. They would only delay the coming war.

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