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AEROSOL SOURCES APPORTIONMENT IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL (PIRACICABA): INFLUENCE OF SUGAR CANE BURNING

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AEROSOL SOURCES APPORTIONMENT IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL (PIRACICABA): INFLUENCE OF SUGAR CANE BURNING. Lara, Luciene L.S. 1 ; Artaxo, P. 2 ; Camargo, P.B. 1 ; Martinelli, L.A. 1 ; Ferraz, E.S.B. 1 1 Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo - e-mail: [email protected]

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aerosol sources apportionment in southeast brazil piracicaba influence of sugar cane burning
AEROSOL SOURCES APPORTIONMENT IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL (PIRACICABA): INFLUENCE OF SUGAR CANE BURNING

Lara, Luciene L.S.1; Artaxo, P.2; Camargo, P.B.1;

Martinelli, L.A.1; Ferraz, E.S.B.1

1 Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo -

e-mail: [email protected]

2 Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo

slide2

Area: 12.400 km2

Population: 2.800.000

Counties: 61

The second most developed area of

São Paulo State.

Equator

Brazil

Capricorn

State of São Paulo

Piracicaba Basin

Piracicaba

Piracicaba River Basin - Geographical Location

slide3

1978

1978

1993

Basin area (%)

80

60

40

20

 (%)

0

-20

Sugar

Crops

Citrus

Urban

Forest

Pasture

Silviculture

-40

-60

-80

Changes in Land-Use in the Piracicaba Basin

19 years later

1993

1997

slide4

The sugar cane burning season extends every year from May to November.

Approximately 20 tons of sugar cane per hectare is burned.

100,000 tons of organic matter or 50,000 tons of C per year.

In Brazil 22% of all gasohol is actually ethanol from sugar cane.

slide5

800

250

200

600

150

Precipitation (mm)

400

Number of fire spots

100

200

50

0

0

Jul

Jan

Sep

Mar

Nov

May

May

Number of Hot Spots in the State of São Paulo

August

Data from INPE (www.inpe.br)

slide6

Rain Water sources in the Piracicaba Basin

Bragança:

Soil dust

Sugar cane burning

Santa Maria:

Sugar cane burning

Soil

Campinas:

Industrial emissions

Sugar cane burning

Piracicaba:

Sugar cane burning

Soil

slide7

Acid rain in Piracicaba River Basin

Bragança:

pH = 4.7

DOC

Santa Maria:

pH = 4.9

DOC, NO3-

Campinas:

pH = 4.4

SO42-, NO3-

Piracicaba:

pH = 4.8

DOC, NO3-

slide9

WET DEPOSITION

* Lara et al., 2001

** Willians et al., 1997

*** Pauliquevis et al., 2002

slide10

Relative sources of nitrogen to the Piracicaba River basin

After Filoso et al. (2002) - Biogeochemistry

slide11

Differences between forest and sugar cane fires

Forest mostly in smoldering200 to 300 tons C /ha

Sugar cane very fast and all in flaming phase

20 tons/ha = 0.5 tons C/ha

slide12

250

PM2.5

200

CPM

Mass concentration

(µg.m-3)

150

100

50

0

12

10

8

BC concentration

(µg.m-3)

6

4

2

0

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

PM10 and Black Carbon concentration in Piracicaba

Concentration Averages:

Dry Season:

PM2.5 = 22.7 g.m-3

CPM = 68.1 g.m-3

BC = 4.2 g.m-3

Wet Season:

PM2.5 = 11.6 g.m-3

CPM = 22.6 g.m-3

BC = 2.1 g.m-3

slide13

80

70

PM10 concentration (µg.m-3)

60

50

40

30

20

7

6

Burning Season

Non Burning Season

5

BC concentration (µg.m-3)

4

3

2

1

0:00

2:00

4:00

6:00

8:00

10:00

12:00

14:00

16:00

18:00

20:00

22:00

Diurnal cycle for PM10 and BC concentrations

slide14

PM2.5

10000

CPM

Concentration (ng.m-3)

1000

100

10

1

10000

PM

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

K

Ca

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Ni

Cu

Zn

Br

Pb

1000

100

10

1

V

K

Al

P

S

Cl

Ti

Ni

Zn

Br

Si

Ca

BC

Cu

Mg

Mn

Cr

Fe

Pb

CPM

PM10

PM2.5

Aerosol elemental composition in Piracicaba

Burning Season

Non Burning Season

PM 2.5 Concentration (ng.m-3)

slide15

Others 4%

Biomass burning 25%

CPM (2.5<dp<10 µm)

Soil 51%

Industries 20%

Piracicaba quantitative aerosol source apportionment

Others 2%

Oil Combustion 12%

PM2.5

Biomass burning 60%

Industries 12%

Soil 14%

slide16

Piracicaba quantitative BC source apportionment

Oil Combustion 12%

Others 2%

Industries 12%

Biomass burning 60%

Soil 14%

slide17

Stable Isotopic Composition of Aerosol in Piracicaba,Sao Paulo and Santarem

δ 13 C values of aerosol particles in:

Piracicaba: -20.9 ± 0.8 ‰

Sao Paulo: -24.6 ± 0.3 ‰

Santarem: -25.8 ± 0.5 ‰

Data from:

Martinelli et al., Atmospheric Environment, 2002

Lara et al., Atmospheric Environment, (Submitted)

slide18

Percentage increases (%) in child respiratory hospital admissions at Piracicaba

95

75

55

% Increase

35

15

-5

P

S

Si

K

Al

Br

Mg

BC

PM2.5

Burning Season

Non Burning Season

slide19

New Sampling sites in the

State of São Paulo

Pasture

Perennial

Forest

Sugar cane

Reforestation

Water bodies

Annual crops

Bare soil

Urban area

Others

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