The equilibrium of weak acids and bases
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The Equilibrium of Weak Acids and Bases. The Equilibrium of Weak Acids and Bases. The dissociation of an acidic or basic compound in aqueous solution produces ions that interact with water (REVIEW!) Pure water contains a few ions, produced by the dissociation of water molecules:.

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The Equilibrium of Weak Acids and Bases

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The equilibrium of weak acids and bases

The Equilibrium ofWeak Acids and Bases


The equilibrium of weak acids and bases1

The Equilibrium ofWeak Acids and Bases

  • The dissociation of an acidic or basic compound in aqueous solution produces ions that interact with water (REVIEW!)

  • Pure water contains a few ions, produced by the dissociation of water molecules:


The equilibrium of weak acids and bases

  • At 25°C, only about two water molecules in one billion dissociate.

  • In neutral water, at 25°C, the concentration of hydronium ions is the same as the concentration of hydroxide ions: 1.0 × 10−7 mol/L.

  • These concentrations must be the same because the dissociation of water produces equal numbers of hydronium and hydroxide ions:

    ______________________________________________

  • [H3O+] is not 1.0 × 10−7 mol/L at other temperatures. (Le Chatelier?)

  • The same is true of [OH−] .


The ion product constant for water

The Ion Product Constant for Water

What would the equilibrium constant, Kc, be for the dissociation of water?


The ion product constant for water1

The Ion Product Constant for Water

  • So few ions form that the concentration of water is essentially constant.

  • The product Kc[H2O]2 is equal to the product of the concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions (work it out!)

  • The equilibrium value of the concentration ion product [H3O+][OH−] at 25°C is called the ion product constant for water. It is given the symbol Kw.


The ion product constant for water2

The Ion Product Constant for Water

The units are commonly dropped, as in other equilibrium expressions you have encountered.


The ion product constant for water3

The Ion Product Constant for Water


Ph and poh

pH and pOH

  • Acidity of an aqueous solution can be stated quantitatively by the concentration of the hydronium ions that are present.

  • pH scale - devised by Danish biochemist named Søren Sørensen to represent acidity (and, by extension, basicity).

  • We use logarithms to define pH because [H3O+] is often a very small number.


Side note review of logarithms

(Side-note: review of Logarithms)

  • Write the exponential equation, 43 = 64 as a logarithm.

  • Write 25 as a logarithm.


The equilibrium of weak acids and bases

  • Write 5-2 as a logarithm.


Ph what does it mean

pH: What does it mean?

  • Since [H3O+] is so small, pH is defined by using the logarithmic equation:

    pH = - log10 [H3O+]


Calculate the ph of water

Calculate the pH of Water

In neutral water, [H3O+] is:

pH = -log10 [H3O+]


Calculate the ph of water1

Calculate the pH of Water

In neutral water, [H3O+] is:

pH = -log10 [H3O+]

= -log10 (1.0 X 10-7 )

What exponent do we need to apply to the base10 to equal 1.0 X 10-7 ?


Calculate the ph of water2

Calculate the pH of Water

In neutral water, [H3O+] is:

pH = -log10 [H3O+] = - (-7)

= -log10 (1.0 X 10-7 ) = 7

What exponent do we need to apply to the base10 to equal 1.0 X 10-7 ?


Calculating poh

Calculating pOH

  • You can calculate the pOH(the power of hydroxide ions) of a solution from the [OH−].

  • pOH = −log[OH−]

  • Kw = [H3O+][OH−] = 1.0 × 10−14 at 25°C

  • ∴pH + pOH = 14


Sample problem page 390

Sample Problem, Page 390


Ph and poh1

pH and pOH


Another way to find h3o and oh

Another Way to Find [H3O+] and [OH−]

  • You can calculate [H3O+] or [OH−] by finding the antilog of the pH or pOH.

  • [H3O+] = 10−pH

  • [OH−] = 10−pOH


Sample problem page 392

Sample Problem, Page 392


The acid dissociation constant

The Acid Dissociation Constant

  • When a weak acid dissolves in water, it does not completely dissociate.


The acid dissociation constant1

The Acid Dissociation Constant

  • You can represent any weak monoprotic acid with the general formula HA. The equilibrium of a weak monoprotic acid in aqueous solution can be expressed as follows:


The acid dissociation constant2

The Acid Dissociation Constant

  • This new constant is called the acid dissociation constant, Ka, (aka the acid ionization constant. With either name, the symbol is Ka.)


Ph and k a of a weak acid

pH and Ka of a Weak Acid

  • The smaller the value of Ka, the less the acid ionizes in aqueous solution.


K a constants

Ka constants


Percent dissociation

Percent Dissociation

  • The percent dissociation of a weak acid is the fraction of acid molecules that dissociate compared with the initial concentration of the acid, expressed as a percent.

  • The percent dissociation depends on the value of Ka for the acid, as well as the initial concentration of the weak acid.


Sample problem

Sample Problem


Sample problem1

Sample Problem


Polyprotic acids

Polyprotic Acids

  • polyprotic acids have more than one hydrogen atom that dissociates.

  • Each dissociation has a corresponding acid dissociation

  • constant.

  • Problems that involve polyprotic acids can be divided into as many sub-problems as there are hydrogen atoms that dissociate.

  • The ion concentrations that are calculated for the first dissociation are substituted as initial ion concentrations for the second dissociation, and so on.


Homework

HOMEWORK:

PPs 13-18 (Pg. 392)

PPs 19-25 (Pg. 400)

PPs 25-28 (Pg. 402)

SR, Pg. 403:

1-5.


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