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Chapter 4. Spending, Income, and GDP. Macroeconomics: Data and Issues. Learning Objectives. Explain how economist define and measure an economy's output Use the expenditure method for measuring GDP to analyze economic activity Define and compute nominal GDP and real GDP

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Spending, Income, and GDP

Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Explain how economist define and measure an economy's output

  • Use the expenditure method for measuring GDP to analyze economic activity

  • Define and compute nominal GDP and real GDP

  • Discuss the relationships between GDP and economic well-being

Market value
Market Value

  • Aggregate measure of quantities produced

  • Weighs more expensive items more

    • Willingness to pay is an indication of benefit from the good

  • Orchardia's GDP is $64

Market value1
Market Value

  • A convenient way to aggregate the many different goods and services produced in a modern economy.

  • However, non-market activities are not counted in GDP

    • Unpaid work of a homemaker

    • paid house keeping and child care services

Women s labor force participation and gdp measurement
Women's labor force participation and GDP measurement

  • Women's labor force participation increased since 1960

  • Measured GDP increased

    • Working women's output measured and counted

      • a real addition to GDP

    • Paid workers provide previously unpaid childcare

      • Not a real addition to goods and services produced

  • Measured change in GDP overstates actual change

Final goods and services
Final Goods and Services

  • Final goods are consumed by the ultimate user

    • End products of production

    • Included in GDP

  • Intermediate goods are used up in the production of final goods

    • Not included in GDP

    • Avoids double counting

  • A barber's assistant earns $2 per haircut for providing services such as shampooing and sweeping up

    • Barber charges $10 per haircut

    • Haircut's contribution to GDP is $10, not $12.

Value added method
Value-added Method

  • Value added is the market value of the product minus the cost of inputs purchased from other firms

    • Count value added in the year it is produced

    • Hot'n'Fresh buys flour and other inputs to make bread that sells for $2.00

Produced in a country in a period of time
Produced in a Country in a Period of Time

  • "Domestic" in GDP means the activity is measured within a country's borders

    • Nationality of owners or company is not relevant

  • Value must be produced in the year considered

    • Sell a 20-year old house for $200,000

      • Pay $12,000 commission

      • Value added is $12,000

      • House was not produced in the period of time studied

Expenditure method for gdp
Expenditure Method for GDP

  • Four users of final goods

    • Households ■ Firms

    • Government ■ Foreigners

  • Assumes all goods produced are purchased by one of these groups in a given year

  • Amount spent = market value

  • GDP can be measured by:

    • Total spending for final goods less value of imports

US GDP, 2007 (billions of dollars)

Consumption expenditure
Consumption Expenditure

  • Spending by households for goods and services

    • Consumer durables are long-lived consumer goods

    • Consumer non-durable goods are shorter-lived goods

    • Services are the largest component of consumer spending


  • Business fixed investment is purchases of new capital goods

  • Residential investment is construction of new homes and apartment buildings

  • Inventory investment is the change in unsold goods to the company's inventory

    • These goods are produced but not yet sold

    • This entry can be positive or negative

      • Negative inventory investment means less in inventory at year-end than at the beginning

Economic investment and financial investment
Economic Investment and Financial Investment

  • Financial investments include purchases of stocks, bonds, and other financial assets

    • Purchase generally transfers ownership of a portion of the firm's existing capital stock

    • Does not correspond to any increase in physical capital or production capacity

    • Economic investment refers to the increase in the capital goods used to produce other goods

    • This value is based on purchase price of the capital goods, not on stock value

Government purchases
Government Purchases

  • Federal, state, and local government purchase final goods and services

  • Excludes transfer payments

    • Transfer payments are made by government but the government receives no current goods or services

      • Spending by recipients is included in GDP

  • Excludes interest paid on government debt

  • Net exports
    Net Exports

    • Net exports are exports minus imports

      • Exports are goods and services produced domestically and sold abroad

        • Exports reduce the amount available to the domestic economy

      • Imports are purchases in the US of goods and services produced abroad

        • Imports increase the amount available to the domestic economy

    Gdp expenditures equation
    GDP Expenditures Equation

    • Terminology

    • Expenditure approach to measuring GDP

      Y = C + I + G + NX

    Gdp example
    GDP Example

    • Total production is 1 million cars, $15,000 each

    • Production value is 1 million times $15,000 = $15 billion

      • 25,000 cars are unsold

        • Investment in inventories increases by $0.375 billion, In what category is this number included?

    Income approach to gdp
    Income Approach to GDP

    • When a good is sold, its proceeds are distributed to workers or business owners

    • GDP = labor income + capital income

    • Labor income is wages, salaries, benefits, and incomes of the self-employed

      • About ⅔ of GDP

    • Capital income pays for physical capital and intangibles

      • Measured before taxes

    Three gdp approaches
    Three GDP Approaches




    Market Value of Final Goods and Services


    Labor Income


    Government purchases

    Capital Income

    Net exports

    Adjusting for price changes
    Adjusting for Price Changes

    • Compare GDP for different years to see how much output has changed

    • GDP changes over time because

      • Prices change AND

      • Quantity of output changes

    • To see how much output has grown, use only the changes in quantities

      • Hold prices constant

    The pizza and calzone economy
    The Pizza and Calzone Economy

    • GDP in 2009 is $175; GDP in 2013 is $420

      • GDP in 2013 is 2.4 times the GDP in 2009

    • Only twice as many pizzas and calzones were produced in 2013

      • Market value of output grew faster than the physical volume of output

    Real gdp and nominal gdp
    Real GDP and Nominal GDP

    • Nominal GDP values output in the current year using prices from the current year

      • Nominal GDP is the current dollar value of production

    • Real GDP values output in the current year using the prices from the base year

      • Real GDP measures the physical volume of production

      • Nominal GDP adjusted for inflation

        Comparisons of economic activity at different times

        should always be done using real GDP.

    Calculating real gdp for 2013
    Calculating Real GDP for 2013

    • Use 2009 as the base year

    • Nominal GDP for 2009 is $175 and for 2013, $420

    • Calculate real GDP using current year quantities and base year prices

      • Real GDP in 2013 is

        (20 pizzas) ($10) + (30 calzones) (5) = $350

        • Real GDP doubled between 2009 and 2013

    Real gdp and economic well being
    Real GDP and Economic Well-Being

    • Real GDP is a flawed measure of well-being

      • It values only market transactions

        • Omits illegal transactions, volunteer work, and household production

    • Maximizing GDP will not necessarily maximize national well-being

      • Whether increases in output increase welfare is a case-by-case issue

    Gdp does not value leisure
    GDP Does Not Value Leisure

    • Amount of leisure time has increased in the past 100 years

      • Work weeks are shorter

      • People enter the labor force at an older age

      • People retire earlier

    • Leisure produces no goods for market

      • GDP places a value of zero on all leisure time

      • Opportunity cost of an hour of leisure is your hourly wage

      • Omission of the value of leisure time makes GDP seem smaller

    Environmental quality and resource depletion
    Environmental Quality and resource depletion

    • Suppose a factory is built in your town

      • People are employed and output is produced

        • Productive activity is included in GDP

        • the factory creates pollution

    • No adjustment is made for the decline in resource availability when mining is done

      • One more barrel of oil on the market means one less barrel for future use

    • Environmental quality and resource depletion are difficult to value

      • They have value and that value is omitted from GDP

    Other quality of life considerations
    Other Quality of Life Considerations

    • GDP does not account for intangibles people value

      • Crime rates

      • Traffic congestion

      • Civic organizations

      • Open space

      • Sense of community

    Poverty and economic inequality
    Poverty and Economic Inequality

    • GDP does not capture the effects of income inequality

      • Most would prefer living in a relatively equal society to one with a few wealthy and many poor

    • Inequality matters and it is increasing in the US

    Gdp as a welfare measure
    GDP as a Welfare Measure

    • GDP per capita is positively associated with several measures of well-being

      • Material standard of living: more goods and services

      • Health and life expectancy

        • Residents of industrialized countries fare better than residents of developing countries in a range of health measures

      • Education

        • Literacy and school enrollment rates are higher in high-income countries

    Spending income and gdp
    Spending, Income, and GDP

    Gross Domestic Product

    Production Method

    Expenditure Method

    Income Method

    Real and Nominal Values

    GDP and Well-Being