Role of geology in assessing vulnerability of underground fortifications
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Role of Geology in Assessing Vulnerability of Underground Fortifications. CPT Leif E. Christensen. Purpose. To inform the class on how geology affects the vulnerability of underground structures to conventional attack with historical examples. References.

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Role of geology in assessing vulnerability of underground fortifications

Role of Geology in Assessing Vulnerability of Underground Fortifications

CPT Leif E. Christensen


Purpose
Purpose Fortifications

  • To inform the class on how geology affects the vulnerability of underground structures to conventional attack with historical examples.


References
References Fortifications

  • Military Geology in War and Peace, 1998

  • http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1990/PFA.htm

  • http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/theater/df-15.htm


Outline
Outline Fortifications

  • Historical Precedence

  • Geology and Facilities

  • Vulnerabilities

  • Modern Systems

  • Summary

  • Conclusion


Historical precedence
Historical Precedence Fortifications

  • 400KBC Pithecanthropus (Java Man)

  • 3,500BC Egypt and Mesopotamia

  • 400 BC Ballista, ram, tunnels

  • A.D. 717 Constantinople - Greek Fire


Historical precedence1
Historical Precedence Fortifications

  • A.D. 1161 Explosives in China

  • 14th Century Artillery

  • 19th Century Overhead casements

  • 20th Century Big Birtha, TacNuc, UGF


Historical precedence2
Historical Precedence Fortifications

  • Sir John Adams, 1924, UK Special Air Raid Precautions Subcommittee concluded:

  • “that in the next war, it may well be the nation whose people can endure aerial bombardment the longer and with greater stoicism, that will ultimately prove victorious”


Geology and facilities
Geology and Facilities Fortifications

  • In conventional warfare, the first few meters are critical.

  • UGFs buried more than several meters are typically immune to nonpenetrating rounds.

  • Hard rock may even provide immunity to nuclear attack.

  • Siege craft success is dependant upon accurate geologic assessment.


Geology and facilities1
Geology and Facilities Fortifications

  • Think outside the box and neutralize rather than destroy.

  • “Strategic geologic intelligence” assesses and maximizes UGFs with regard to topo, lithology, structure, and rock burial.

  • “Deutch Report” (1994) identified 16 key areas to defeat threats.

    • detection

    • defeat


Vulnerablilities
Vulnerablilities Fortifications

  • Depth

  • Rock-mass strength

  • Surface-layer penetrability

    • function of compressive strength

    • quality of rock (jointing, faulting, etc.)

    • depth of weathered rock


Vulnerabilities
Vulnerabilities Fortifications

  • With known data, modeling is possible

  • Projected penetration

  • Acceptable risk


Our little friend
Our Little Friend Fortifications

Aerial delivered “bunker buster” GAM

Warhead ~4500 lbs

Penetration: Concrete - 20 ft; Earth Works - 100 ft


Not so friendly
Not so Friendly Fortifications

Chinese made DF-15 (aka M-9)

High mobility wheeled launch platform

Warhead Yield 50-350 KT or conventional

Range of 200-600 kms


Summary
Summary Fortifications

  • History

  • Geology and facilities

  • Vulnerabilities


Questions
Questions Fortifications


Conclusion
Conclusion Fortifications

  • Throughout history mankind has hidden underground when seeking protection. By using precise geotechnical data, we can effectively determine both our own degree of protection and the most efficient way of defeating an underground threat.


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