Objective: To examine the formation of the New Deal. Hoover was blamed for doing nothing about the Depression. Democrats nominated the governor of New York, FDR (cousin of Theodore Roosevelt) Democrats won the majority in the House and Senate. 1932 – FDR is Elected. Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
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Objective: To examine the formation of the New Deal.
Hoover was blamed for doing nothing about the Depression.
Democrats nominated the governor of New York, FDR (cousin of Theodore Roosevelt)
Democrats won the majority in the House and Senate
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Inauguration of FDR, March 4, 1933
“Men are not prisoners of fate, but only prisoners of their own mind.”
“A conservative is a man with two perfectly good legs who has never learned to walk.”
“It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something.”
Most diverse administration in US history: including blacks, Jews, Catholics, and women. Frances Perkins became 1st female Cabinet member as Secretary of Labor
II. plans for economic Recovery
I.Relief for the unemployed
The New Deal had three major goals:
III. Reforms to prevent another depression
Wave of initial action of New Deal during FDR’s first 3 months in office
1st problem: bank failure.
FDR signing the Emergency Banking Relief Act into law.
FDR’s first fireside chat on the bank crisis. (March 12, 1933)
Established the FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Provided insurance to
individual bank accounts
The SEC, Securities Exchange Commission was created to regulate the stock market.
Practices must be open
to the public.
No insider trading.
End of prohibition: increase revenue by legalizing some alcohol sales (sin taxes).
What are some ways sin taxes are used today to fund local, state, or federal finances?
The Agricultural Adjustment Act – farmers were paid to slow down production, which would raise prices.
The Civilian Conservation Corps
Built roads, parks, planted trees, and developed flood control.
The Public Works Administration / National Industrial Recoveries Act
Built schools and government buildings
Built roads and bridges
The National Recovery Administration
Set prices and minimum wages
Critics say his “Big Government” has gone too far…
Some like Huey Long & Father Coughlin say it hasn’t gone far enough.
The courts strike down NRA and AAA.
He is accused of assuming legislative powers.
FDR has an answer – let’s pack the Supreme Court
FDR wanted to increase justices from 9 to 13
Congress said no (1st time), but he ended up nominating 7 new judges over his terms in office.
The Photographer of the People
The ‘conscience” of the New Deal.
“The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.”
“No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.”
1936 – FDR was re-elected.
The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act – rewarded farmers for good farming practices.
A second draft of the AAA was passed.
The Resettlement Administration allocated over $1 billion in loans to small farmers.
1935 – 1943, $11 billion spent to create jobs.
651,000 miles of roads
125,000 public buildings
National Labor Relations Act (Sponsored by Senator Robert Wagner)
Supported union rights
Prohibited firing of union members
Fair Labor Standards Act
Reduced work week to 40 hours
Minimum wage – 25 cents
(40 cents by 1945)
Banned hazardous work for minors
Old Age Insurance – employee paid half and employer paid half.
Unemployment Insurance – employees could draw from this if out of work.
Aid to Families w/Dependent Children and the Disabled
The New Deal:
Provided education, jobs, counseling, and recreation to young people.
Issued part time jobs for students
Found work for drop-outs
National Housing Act &
The Federal Housing Commission
Home Owners Loan Corporation provided loans to homeowners in default
The Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Provided funds for direct relief to
poor / needy
The WPA “Dollar”
Artists of the WPA
Kansas Cityfrom Politics, Farming, & the Law
Thomas Hart Benton,1936
The Annual Moveby Otis Dozier, 1936
Construction of the Damby William Gropper
Women of Flint, MIby Joseph Varak
The Cradle Will Rock, 1937
The theater, when it’s good, is always dangerous!
Orson Welles & John Houseman
WPA Travel Guides
The American Guide Series