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Objective: To examine the formation of the New Deal. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Objective: To examine the formation of the New Deal. Hoover was blamed for doing nothing about the Depression. Democrats nominated the governor of New York, FDR (cousin of Theodore Roosevelt) Democrats won the majority in the House and Senate. 1932 – FDR is Elected. Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

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Objective: To examine the formation of the New Deal.

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Objective: To examine the formation of the New Deal.


Hoover was blamed for doing nothing about the Depression.

Democrats nominated the governor of New York, FDR (cousin of Theodore Roosevelt)

Democrats won the majority in the House and Senate

1932 – FDR is Elected


Franklin Delano Roosevelt

  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) won the 1932 Presidential election.


  • In his inauguration speech, FDR stated that, “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”

Inauguration of FDR, March 4, 1933


FDR QUOTES

“Men are not prisoners of fate, but only prisoners of their own mind.”

“A conservative is a man with two perfectly good legs who has never learned to walk.”

“It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something.”


  • FDR gathered information from many university professors/ economic experts (Rexford Tugwell, Raymond Moley, Adolph Berle Jr.) known as the Brain Trust.


Most diverse administration in US history: including blacks, Jews, Catholics, and women. Frances Perkins became 1st female Cabinet member as Secretary of Labor


II. plans for economic Recovery

I.Relief for the unemployed

The New Deal had three major goals:

III. Reforms to prevent another depression


Wave of initial action of New Deal during FDR’s first 3 months in office

Deficit spending

1st problem: bank failure.

The First 100 Days


  • Roosevelt declared a “bank holiday”, closing every bank in the nation for eight days.


  • Congress then passed theEmergency Banking Relief Act, which only allowed banks to open if they had enough funds to pay their depositors.

FDR signing the Emergency Banking Relief Act into law.


Fireside Chats

  • FDR gave 30 radio speeches to the nation, which became known as fireside chats.

FDR’s first fireside chat on the bank crisis. (March 12, 1933)


  • FDR’s first fireside chat reassured people that banks were safe to use again.


Established the FDIC

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

Provided insurance to

individual bank accounts

initially $2,500

(today $250,000)

Glass-Steagall Act


The SEC, Securities Exchange Commission was created to regulate the stock market.

Practices must be open

to the public.

No insider trading.

Federal Securities Act


End of prohibition: increase revenue by legalizing some alcohol sales (sin taxes).

What are some ways sin taxes are used today to fund local, state, or federal finances?

21st Amendment


The Agricultural Adjustment Act – farmers were paid to slow down production, which would raise prices.

The Civilian Conservation Corps

Built roads, parks, planted trees, and developed flood control.

Help is on the Way!


The Public Works Administration / National Industrial Recoveries Act

Built schools and government buildings

Built roads and bridges

The National Recovery Administration

Set prices and minimum wages

And More…


Critics say his “Big Government” has gone too far…

Some like Huey Long & Father Coughlin say it hasn’t gone far enough.

The courts strike down NRA and AAA.

He is accused of assuming legislative powers.

FDR has an answer – let’s pack the Supreme Court

FDR Faces Opposition


FDR wanted to increase justices from 9 to 13

Congress said no (1st time), but he ended up nominating 7 new judges over his terms in office.

Court Packing Plan


Dorothea Lange

The Photographer of the People


Eleanor Roosevelt

The ‘conscience” of the New Deal.

“The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.”

“No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.”


1936 – FDR was re-elected.

The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act – rewarded farmers for good farming practices.

A second draft of the AAA was passed.

The Resettlement Administration allocated over $1 billion in loans to small farmers.

2nd New Deal


1935 – 1943, $11 billion spent to create jobs.

850 airports

651,000 miles of roads

125,000 public buildings

Works Progress Administration


National Labor Relations Act (Sponsored by Senator Robert Wagner)

Supported union rights

Prohibited firing of union members

Fair Labor Standards Act

Reduced work week to 40 hours

Minimum wage – 25 cents

(40 cents by 1945)

Banned hazardous work for minors

The Wagner Act & Fair Labor Standards Act


Old Age Insurance – employee paid half and employer paid half.

Unemployment Insurance – employees could draw from this if out of work.

Aid to Families w/Dependent Children and the Disabled

Social Security Act


The New Deal:

The Works

Progress

Administration


Provided education, jobs, counseling, and recreation to young people.

Issued part time jobs for students

Found work for drop-outs

National Youth Administration


National Housing Act &

The Federal Housing Commission

Home Owners Loan Corporation provided loans to homeowners in default

The Federal Emergency Relief Administration

Provided funds for direct relief to

poor / needy

And Still More…


The WPA “Dollar”


WPA: The

Federal Arts

Project


Artists of the WPA


Kansas Cityfrom Politics, Farming, & the Law

Thomas Hart Benton,1936


The Annual Moveby Otis Dozier, 1936


Construction of the Damby William Gropper


Women of Flint, MIby Joseph Varak


WPA: The

Federal Music

Project


WPA: The

Federal Theater

Project


The Cradle Will Rock, 1937

The theater, when it’s good, is always dangerous!

Orson Welles & John Houseman


WPA: The

Federal Writers

Project


WPA Bookbinding


The

Federal Writers

Project:

WPA Travel Guides


The American Guide Series


The

Federal Writers

Project:

Oral Histories


Former SlaveInterviews


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