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When heaven above was not yet named, nor earth below pronounced by name, Apsu, the first one, their begetter and maker Tiamat, who bore them all, had mixed their waters together, but had not formed pastures, nor discovered reed-beds. When yet no gods were manifest,

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When heaven above was not yet named, nor earth below pronounced by name, Apsu, the first one,

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When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

When heaven above was not yet named,

nor earth below pronounced by name,

Apsu, the first one,

their begetter and maker Tiamat,

who bore them all, had mixed their waters together,

but had not formed pastures, nor discovered reed-beds.

When yet no gods were manifest,

nor names pronounced, nor destinies decreed,

then gods were born within them.

Cuneiform:

First written language,

1000s of wedge shapes


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

Ziggurat:

Early religious temple


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

Phoenician Alphabet:

Simplified text,

Precursor to our English

alphabet


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

Torah:

Judaism (Jewish)

religious text. Sets

A religious code for all to see.


World history

World History

Chapter 2 notes


Section 1 civilization begins in mesopotamia

Section 1Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia

  • Farming in ancient Mesopotamia resulted in an abundance of food, which enabled civilization to emerge.

  • This led to the invention of cuneiform, a type of writing credited to the Sumerians.


Why was the invention of writing so important to the development of civilization

Why was the invention of writing so important to the development of civilization?

  • Writing was important because it allowed a society to keep records and to pass along knowledge from person to person and generation to generation.


Why was the invention of writing so important to the development of civilization1

Why was the invention of writing so important to the development of civilization?

  • Writing also made it possible for people to communicate ideas in new ways, such as in The Epic of Gilgamesh.

  • Writing was key to the Hebrew religious tradition because the Jewish prophets wrote down God’s wishes.


Sumerian inventions

Sumerian inventions

  • The Sumerians developed the wagon wheel to help transport people and goods from place to place.

  • How do wheeled vehicles play a critical role in the world today in transporting people and goods?


Sumerian inventions1

Sumerian inventions

  • The Sumerians also developed the use of the arch in construction, which is still used in modern buildings around the world.


Sumerian inventions2

Sumerian inventions

  • Sumerian achievements in mathematics and astronomy formed the basis for concepts we use today.

  • The division of the modern hour into 60 minutes is a holdover from Sumerian astronomy.


Empires

Empires

  • A theocracy is a government in which leaders rule by divine authority.

  • Around 2340 B.C., Sargon, the leader of the Akkadians, overran the Sumerian city-states and set up the first empire in world history.


Empires1

Empires

  • In 1792BC, Hammurabi took over the Sumer & Akkad areas and is remembered for his law code, a collection of 282 laws established for the entire region.


Section 2 egyptian civilizations the gift of the nile

Section 2 Egyptian Civilizations: The Gift of the Nile

  • The history of Egypt begins around 3100 B.C., when Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt.


Egypt

Egypt

  • Modern historians have divided Egyptian history into three major periods, known as the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.


What s the importance of the nile river to the development of the egyptian civilization

What’s the importance of the Nile River to the development of the Egyptian civilization?

  • The annual flooding of the Nile River left a deposit of mud that created an area of rich soil several miles wide on both sides of the river.

  • This fertile land was used to grow crops and create the surpluses of food that made Egypt prosperous.


What s the importance of the nile river to the development of the egyptian civilization1

What’s the importance of the Nile River to the development of the Egyptian civilization?

  • The river also served as a unifying factor in Egyptian history.

  • In ancient times, the Nile was the fastest way to travel through the land, making both transportation and communication easier.


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

  • The regularity of the Nile floods and the relative isolation of the Egyptians created a feeling of security and changelessness.


Hieroglyphics v script

Hieroglyphics v. Script

  • Hieratic script, a simplified version of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, was used for business transactions, record keeping, and the general needs of daily life.

  • Why not just use hieroglyphs?


Script glyphs

Script & ‘Glyphs


Section 3 new centers of civilization

Section 3New Centers of Civilization

  • The scattered Israelite tribes are considered the “ten lost tribes”.

  • Ancient Israel was at the height of its power under King Solomon.


Israel

Israel

  • Israel was influenced by Judaism, which differed from the other religions of the time in that it was monotheistic.


Israel1

Israel

  • Also, unlike the leaders of other religions of the time, Jewish prophets could not claim they alone knew the will of God, since the Jewish teachings were written down for anyone to read.


Phoenicians

Phoenicians

  • Phoenicians were traders who devised a simplified alphabet for trade.

  • What is the importance of the Phoenician alphabet? It is the basis for English alphabet.


Section 4 the rise of new empires

Section 4The Rise of New Empires

  • Originally, the Assyrians were especially known for committing atrocities on their captives.

  • As their empire collapsed, the Persian power grew.


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

  • When Cyrus the Great captured Babylon, he showed remarkable restraint and wisdom.

  • Because of this, everyone accepted him as ruler.


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

  • By the time of Darius, the Persian kings had created a standing army known as the Immortals because their numbers were never allowed to fall below ten thousand.


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

  • During his reign, Darius extended the Persian Empire to become the largest empire the world had yet seen.


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

  • Well-maintained roads and way stations that provided food, shelter, and fresh horses for the king’s messengers contributed to the efficient system of communication that was crucial to sustaining the Persian Empire.


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

  • But, high taxes and poor leadership allowed Alexander the Great of Greece to conquer the area by 330BC effectively ending Persian led rule of the area.


When heaven above was not yet named nor earth below pronounced by name apsu the first one

Middle East map


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