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Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile. Chapter 2, Section 1. Main Idea:. Patterns of daily life and culture in ealy Egyptian empires were shaped by the features and the Nile River. Objectives:. Explore how geography affected the development of ancient Egypt

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Ancient kingdoms of the nile
Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile

  • Chapter 2, Section 1


Main idea
Main Idea:

  • Patterns of daily life and culture in ealy Egyptian empires were shaped by the features and the Nile River.


Objectives
Objectives:

  • Explore how geography affected the development of ancient Egypt

  • Identify the events and discoveries that marked the development of Egyptian civilizations

  • Explain how Egyptian kingdoms developed and why they collapsed.


The land
The Land:

  • It’s Geography and Importance


Geography
Geography

  • According to the map, what geographical features on land surround the Nile River?


The nile river
The Nile River

  • 1. The geography of Egypt has been dominated by the mighty Nile River.

  • 2. The Nile is the longest river in the world, stretching 4,160 miles!


The nile river1
The Nile River

  • 3. The River flows from south to north, breaks into a fan-shaped delta and then empties into the southern Mediterranean Sea.


The nile river2
The Nile River

  • 4. The south-to-north flow of the Nile made it possible for early people to move goods upland. At the same time, prevailing wind blowing from north to south enables boats to sail southward on the river.



The nile
The Nile

  • “When the Nile overflows, it floods both its banks to an average distance of forty miles. But why it does so I find it impossible to discover... I would particularly like to know why it starts flooding in mid-summer, of all times, and goes on doing so for oer three months before sinking back to its original level...? -Herodotus


The nile1
The Nile

  • 5. The Nile River flooded annually for months.

  • 6. Crops were harvested before the floods. When waters receded, fertile soil was left behind.



The nile river3
The Nile River

  • 7. Egyptians had to cooperate to control the Nile, building dikes, reservoirs, and irrigation ditches.

  • 8. Rulers used the Nile to link and unite Upper and Lower Egypt.

  • 9. The Nile served as a trade route connecting Egypt to Africa, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean world.


Wake up check up
Wake Up - Check Up

  • (Think don’t write) How did the Nile River contribute to the development of Egyptian civilization?


Early steps toward civilization
Early Steps Toward Civilization

  • 10. By 3800 b.c. they had began to Mine metals, making alloys, and pottery.

  • 11. By 3000 b.c. the Nile River valley people had developed hieroglyphics, a form of writing.


Vocab
VOCAB:

  • 12. HIEROGLYPHICS: a form of Egyptian writing that used more than 600 signs, pictures, or symbols to represent words and sounds.


Hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphics

  • Decipher the above modern hieroglyphic.



Steps toward civilization
Steps toward Civilization

  • 13. Developed papyrus ( paper) from papyrus plant and ink from soot and plant juice.


Steps toward civilization1
Steps toward Civilization

  • 14. Hieroglyphics decoded by using the Rosetta Stone- a large stone that contained Greek writing and hieroglyphics.


The egyptian kingdoms
The Egyptian Kingdoms

  • 1.Two Kingdoms- Lower Egypt (north), Upper Egypt (south).


The egyptian kingdoms1
The Egyptian Kingdoms

  • 2. Kingdoms unified after 3200 B.C. by Menes -king of Upper Egypt.

  • 3. Founded a dynasty – family of rulers.

  • 4. Rulers were political and religious leaders- regarded as gods.

  • 5. Later rulers took title of pharaoh who had absolute or unlimited power.


The egyptian kingdoms2
The Egyptian Kingdoms

  • A funeral mask of Pharaoh Tutankhamen.

  • Beard is a symbol of the god Osiris

  • Vulture and cobra on the headdress represent the pharaoh’s power over Upper and Lower Egpt.


The egyptian kingdoms3
The Egyptian Kingdoms

  • 6. From the time of Menes until almost 300 B.C., some 30 dynasties ruled Egypt.

  • 7. Historians divide this time span into three kingdoms: The Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom



The old kingdom1
The Old Kingdom

  • 8.The Old Kingdom- 2680 B.C.-2180 B.C.- Great Sphinx and the largest pyramids built.


The old kingdom2
The Old Kingdom

  • 9. Two classes of people- lower (farmers and peasants) and upper (pharaoh and nobles).

  • 10. Pharaohs grew weaker and nobles grew stronger leads to a long period of civil wars.

  • 11. This period of internal strife is called The First Intermediate Period.



The middle kingdom1
The Middle Kingdom

  • 12. The Middle Kingdom- begins around 2050 B.C. after a new line of pharaohs reunite Egypt

  • 13. These strong pharaohs bring peace and prosperity - “golden age”


The middle kingdom2
The Middle Kingdom

  • 14. Middle Kingdom becomes unstable when nobles and priests began to again weaken the power of the pharaoh

  • 15. Invasions begin around 1750 B.C.- Hyksos –foreign invaders- arrive from Asia and take over part of Egypt.

  • 16. Bring new weapons and chariots- rule until around 1650 B.C. ushering in the Second Intermediate Period


The new kingdom
The New Kingdom

  • 1570 B.C. to 1080 B.C.


The new kingdom1
The New Kingdom

  • 17. Leaders in Upper Egypt drive the Hyksos out of the country.

  • 18. A line of strong pharaohs began to rule a reunited Egypt. This period is called the New Kingdom (from 1570 b.c. to 1080 b.c.)


The new kingdom2
The New Kingdom

  • 19. Pharaohs build and empire by creating a strong army and gaining land along the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea and south into Nubia.


The new kingdom3
The New Kingdom

  • EMPIRE: A form of government in whic an individual or a single people rules over many other peoples and their territories.


The new kingdom4
The New Kingdom

  • Yes, Sarah Palin could be the first female Vice President... but Egypt was way ahead of the game!


The new kingdom5
The New Kingdom

  • 20. First female pharaoh was Hatshepsut (1503 B.C.- 1482 B.C.)

  • 21. She was a strong ruler who married her half-brother in 1479 BC, preferred wearing men's clothing, erected massive monuments, and expanded Egypt to new heights of wealth and glory.


The new kingdom6
The New Kingdom

  • 22. Secures borders and built trade- succeeded by stepson Thutmose III who continues to expand Egypt- dies in 1450 B.C

  • 23. Pharaoh Amenhotep IV rules from 1380 B.C- 1362 B.C.

  • 24. Tries to bring social and religious changes- end polytheism-belief in many gods and replace with monotheism- belief in one god.


The new kingdom7
The New Kingdom

  • 25. Amenhotep IV could not change the religious beliefs of the people.

  • 26. He was opposed by the priests and eventually fails... the priests change religion back to polytheism


Egypt s delcine
Egypt’s Delcine

  • 27. Ramses II (Ramses the Great) was the last great pharaoh of Egypt (1279 b.c. to 1213 b.c.)

  • 28. Weak leaders and foreign invasions end Egypt’s power around 300 B.C.


Egyptian kingdoms
Egyptian Kingdoms

Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.

Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.

Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old Kingdom.

Powerful pharaohs created a large empire

that reached the Euphrates River.

Hatshepsut

encouraged trade.

Ramses II expanded Egyptian rule to Syria.

Egyptian power

declined.

Large drainage project created arable farmland.

Traders had contacts with Middle East and Crete.

Corruption and

rebellions were

common.

Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta

region.


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