Urban Forest Hurricane Recovery Program
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Urban Forest Hurricane Recovery Program. http://treesandhurricanes.ifas.ufl.edu. Selecting Wind Resistant Trees: Coastal Plain Species. Mary Duryea Eliana Kampf. Study Methodology Results Lists of wind resistance Recommendations for a healthy urban forest.

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Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Urban Forest Hurricane Recovery Program

http://treesandhurricanes.ifas.ufl.edu


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Selecting Wind Resistant Trees:Coastal Plain Species

Mary Duryea

Eliana Kampf


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

  • Study

  • Methodology

  • Results

  • Lists of wind resistance

  • Recommendations for a healthy urban forest


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Hurricanes Measured in Study

Andrew

165 mph

1992

Jeanne

120 mph

2004

Ivan

130 mph

2004

Katrina

125 mph

2005

Rita

120 mph

2005

Georges

110 mph

1998

Opal

125 mph

1995

Erin

85 mph

1995

Dennis

120 mph

2005

Charley

145 mph

2004

Funding: FL DOT andDOF, USDA Forest Service

Georgia

Alabama

Mississippi

Louisiana

Florida

Puerto Rico


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

  • SE Coastal Plain

  • Subtropical & Tropical


Methodology

Methodology

  • Urban neighborhoods randomly chosen at point of landfall

  • All trees along streets were measured

  • Standing, leaning or fallen

  • Measured dbh, height for palms

  • Defoliation, branch damage


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Wind and Trees Survey

  • Surveyed 240 arborists, urban foresters, forest scientists

  • Asked them to rank 160 tree species for wind resistance


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Results

holly

american

live oak

SE magnolia

100

wax myrtle

sweet gum

crape myrtle

Hurricane Ivan

(130 mph)

dogwood

90

sabal palm

laurel oak

pecan

red maple

chinese tallow*

sycamore

slash pine

water oak

Bradford pear

80

loblolly pine

black cherry

SE red cedar

70

SE red oak

longleaf pine

Carolina

laurelcherry

60

sand pine

Survival (%)

spruce

pine

50

40

tulip

poplar

30

LSD = 35%

20

10

0

Tree Species

* prohibited species in Florida

sand

live oak


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Results

spruce

pine

35

sycamore

SE red oak

laurel oak

Hurricane Ivan

(130 mph)

30

SE red cedar

chinese tallow*

sweet gum

live oak

pecan

water oak

sand pine

25

red maple

C. laurelcherry

black cherry

Average Branch Loss (%)

20

SE magnolia

slash pine

Bradford pear

longleaf pine

sand live oak

wax myrtle

15

dogwood

crape myrtle

tulip

poplar

loblolly pine

American holly

LSD = 11%

10

5

0

Tree species

* prohibited species in Florida


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

35

30

25

39-79 in.

20

20-39 in.

8-19 in.

15

< 8 in.

10

5

0

Large trees do more poorly than small trees

Branch Loss ( %)

P<0.0001

Tree Diameter


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

sand live oak

Results

American

holly

100

wax myrtle

SE magnolia

sweet gum

crape myrtle

Hurricane Ivan

(130 mph)

dogwood

live oak

90

sabal palm

slash pine

pecan

Bradford pear

80

red maple

laurel oak

water oak

loblolly pine

black cherry

70

chinese tallow*

longleaf pine

sycamore

60

SE red oak

SE red cedar

Survival (Recalculated) (%)

sand pine

C. laurelcherry

50

spruce pine

40

tulip

poplar

LSD = 25%

30

20

10

0

Tree Species

* prohibited species in Florida


Laurel oak

Laurel Oak

  • Rapid growing, short lived (mature at 50 yr)

  • Light wood (0.56 g/cm3)

  • Damaging when it falls


Survival of oaks in north fl

100

80

60

Survival (%)

40

P<0.001

20

0

Erin

Dennis

Opal

Ivan

(85 mph)

(120 mph)

(125 mph)

(130 mph)

Hurricane

Sand live oak

Live oak

Laurel

Survival of Oaks in North FL


Sabal palm

100

Opal

80

Erin

Jeanne

Charley

Andrew

Ivan

60

40

Survival (%)

20

92%

93%

0

85

120

125

130

145

165

Wind Speed (mph)

Sabal Palm


Southern magnolia

Southern Magnolia

  • 96%, 97%, 92% standing after Erin, Opal, Ivan

  • Excellent survival rate even though it lost about 43% of its leaves


Southern red cedar

100

80

60

Survival (%)

40

20

Erin

Dennis

Opal

Ivan

0

85

120

125

130

Wind Speed (mph)

Southern Red Cedar


Pines

Opal

Slash Pine

Longleaf Pine

100

Charley

Ivan

Erin

Opal

Erin

Jeanne

80

Charley

Ivan

Andrew

60

40

20

0

Survival after Hurricanes (%)

Sand Pine

Loblolly Pine

100

Opal

80

Ivan

Erin

Opal

60

Ivan

40

Jeanne

20

0

165

85

120

125

130

145

85

120

125

130

145

165

Pines

Wind Speed


Pines1

Pines

  • Dangerous to have large trees close to buildings

  • Medium to Poor wind resistance:

    • Longleaf & Slash > Loblolly > Sand & Spruce pine

  • Continue to die after hurricanes:

    • Ivan (130 mph): Lost an additional 2-3%

    • Charley (145 mph): Lost an additional 50%


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Live Oak

Strong wood – 0.8 g/cm3

Species with higher wood density survived better

and lost less branches (p<0.0001)

Defoliates early –

Leaf loss was positively

correlated with survival

(p<0.0001)

Strong roots


Native vs exotic trees

100

****

80

****

NS

60

Survival (%)

40

20

0

Jeanne

Ivan

Charley

Native species

Hurricane

Exotic species

Native vs. Exotic Trees


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Lists of Wind Resistance

  • 85 surveys (35%) were returned

  • Combining:

    • our study results

    • survey

    • scientific literature


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Wind and Trees Survey – Results


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Medium-High Wind Resistance

Dicots

Acer saccharum subsp. floridanum, FL sugar maple

Acer palmatum, Japanese maple

Betula nigra, river birch

Carpinus caroliniana, ironwood

Carya glabra, pignut hickory

Carya tomentosa, mockernut hickory

Cercis canadensis, red bud

Chionanthus virginicus, fringe tree

Diospyros virginiana, common persimmon

Fraxinus americana, white ash

Liquidambar styraciflua, sweetgum

Magnolia virginiana, sweetbay magnolia

Magnolia xsoulangiana, saucer magnolia

Nyssa aquatica, water tupelo

Nyssa sylvatica, black tupelo

Ostrya virginiana, American hophornbean

Prunus angustifolia, chickasaw plum

Quercus michauxii, swamp chestnut

Quercus shumardii, Shumard oak

Quercus stellata, post oak

Ulmus alata, winged elm

Palms

Washingtonia robusta, Washington fan

Highest Wind Resistance

Dicots

Carya floridana, FL scrub hickory

Cornus florida, dogwood

Ilex cassine, dahoon holly

Ilex glabra, inkberry

Ilex opaca, American holly

Ilex vomitoria, yaupon holly

Lagerstroemia indica, crape myrtle

Magnolia grandiflora, southern magnolia

Quercus geminata, sand live oak

Quercus laevis, turkey oak

Quercus myrtifolia, myrtle oak

Quercus virginiana, live oak

Podocarpus spp, podocarpus

Vaccinium arboreum, sparkleberry

Conifers

Taxodium distichum, baldcypress

Taxodium ascendens, pondcypress

Palms

Butia capitata, pindo or jelly

Phoenix canariensis, Canary Island date

Phoenix dactylifera, date

Sabal palmetto, cabbage, sabal


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Medium-Low Wind Resistance

Dicots

Acer negundo, boxelder

Acer rubrum, red maple

Acer saccharinum, silver maple

Celtis laevigata, sugarberry

Celtis occidentalis, hackberry

Cinnamomum camphora, camphor *

Eriobotrya japonica, loquat **

Eucalyptus cinera, silverdollar eucalyptus

Fraxinus pennsylvanica, green ash

Morus rubra, red mulberry

Myrica cerifera, wax myrtle

Persea borbonia, redbay

Platanus occidentalis, sycamore

Prunus serotina, black cherry

Quercus alba, white oak

Quercus phellos, willow oak

Salix xsepulcralis, weeping willow

Ulmus americana, American elm

Conifers

Pinus elliottii, slash pine

Pinus palustris, longleaf pine

Pinus taeda, loblolly pine

Lowest Wind Resistance

Dicots

Carya illinoensis, pecan

Liriodendron tulipifera, tulip poplar

Prunus caroliniana, Carolina laurelcherry

Pyrus calleryana, Bradford pear

Quercus falcata, southern red oak

Quercus laurifolia, laurel oak

Quercus nigra, water oak

Sapium sebiferum, Chinese tallow ***

Ulmus parvifolia, Chinese elm

Conifers

Juniperus silicicola, southern red cedar

xCupressocyparis leylandii, Leyland cypress

Pinus clausa, sand pine

Pinus glabra, spruce pine

* Invasive, not recommended by

University of Florida/IFAS

** Caution: manage to prevent escape

*** Prohibited in Florida (Fox et al. 2005)


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Recommendations for a healthy urban forest

When Establishing New Trees:

  • Establish a structural pruning program early on

  • Consider soil depth, water depth and compaction

  • Plant trees from the highest and medium-high WR lists

  • Give trees adequate aerial space when mature

  • Plant high quality trees with good structure

  • Plant trees in groups as opposed to individually

  • Plant a mixture of species, ages and layers

  • Give trees adequate rooting space:

    • small trees - at least 3 x 3 m

    • large trees - at least 10 x 10 m


Urban forest hurricane recovery program

Recommendations for a healthy urban forest

When Managing Older Trees:

  • Consider removing trees on the lowest WR list

  • Remove hazard trees

  • Know the life span of your tree

  • Have tree health evaluated

  • Be aware of root damage during construction

  • Prune trees regularly

  • Consult with a certified arborist or urban forester


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