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TERMINOLOGY. “Quran”- verbatim word of God revealed to Prophet Muhammad (s) “Hadith Qudsi”- word of God in the language of the Prophet (s) “Qudsi” does not necessarily mean confirmed or authentic; can be forgery, There can be weak or strong hadith. DEFINITION OF HADITH.

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Terminology
TERMINOLOGY

  • “Quran”- verbatim word of God revealed to Prophet Muhammad (s)

  • “Hadith Qudsi”- word of God in the language of the Prophet (s)

  • “Qudsi” does not necessarily mean confirmed or authentic; can be forgery,

  • There can be weak or strong hadith


Definition of hadith
DEFINITION OF HADITH

  • In Arabic “hadith” means “talk” or “news”

  • Also used to describe something new

    (de novo)

  • In the Islamic literature perspective, Hadith refers to the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (S)


Reasons for absence of written hadith at the time of the prophet pbuh
REASONS for ABSENCE OF WRITTEN HADITH at the time of the Prophet (PBUH)

  • Prophet Muhammad did not recommend writing down the hadith because:

  • There would be 2 texts; but the Ummah should have one authentic, guarded text The Quran

  • Vast majority of people were illiterate

  • There was no standard at that time to write the context of the hadith


During the time of the four rightly guided caliphs
DURING THE TIME OF THE FOUR RIGHTLY GUIDED CALIPHS Prophet (PBUH)

All of the four Caliphs refused to record the Hadith

They required “2 witnesses” as a proof of any one quotation relayed to the Prophet (PBUH)


Arguments that hadith are not necessary
ARGUMENTS THAT HADITH ARE NOT NECESSARY Prophet (PBUH)

  • The hadith were not allowed to be written at the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

  • Quran is a complete source of guidance

  • The word “hadith” is not mentioned in the Quran


Counter arguments
COUNTER- ARGUMENTS Prophet (PBUH)

  • God sent th Prophet down to humankind to make clear what has been “bestowed” on us

  • God commands humankind to follow the Prophet

  • God says in the Quran that you will find an example to follow in the Prophet “in order to be good “


The authentication process
THE AUTHENTICATION PROCESS Prophet (PBUH)

  • Reference system: “Sanad” is the chain of narrators

  • Bibliography and evaluation of the narrators

    was done to ensure accuracy of any statement

  • Critique of “Al Matn,” body of the text

  • Scholars felt it easier to critique the “sanad,” rather than the “matn”


Categorization of hadith according to sanad
CATEGORIZATION OF Hadith Prophet (PBUH)according to Sanad

  • Marfoo- (elevated or promoted) hadith can be traced to the prophet –direct from him to the next link

  • Maqtoo (severed or cut) – chain stops at a companion of the Prophet

    Another Terminology:

  • Musnad- elevated to the Prophet

  • Mursal- chain stops at a successor


Weak chains
WEAK CHAINS Prophet (PBUH)

  • MUNQUATIE- one link missing in the chain

  • MUEDIL- more than one link is missing

  • MUALLAQ- suspended, if all links are missing


Number of narrators
NUMBER OF NARRATORS Prophet (PBUH)

  • Mutawatir- narrated by a large group of people who received it from another large group of people, leading back to Prophet Muhammad; they should be too numerous to leave room for conspiring to lie

  • Singular- the chain at all or some levels is a single individual – represents probability, but not certainty of authenticity


The ranks of hadith
THE RANKS OF HADITH Prophet (PBUH)

  • Saheeh- sound; according the rules of the compiler

  • Hasan- good; the chain is fair, but not perfect

  • Dhaeif- weak; members of the chain are unreliable

  • Mawude- the hadith is forged


Division of the sunnah of prophet muhammad
DIVISION OF THE SUNNAH OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD Prophet (PBUH)

  • Non Legal Sunnah “Sunnah Ghayr Tashri’iyyah- actions and sayings of the Prophet that were not meant to set a binding legal rule

  • Subtypes

    • Natural human activities of the Prophet (i.e. sleep, dress)

    • Things related to social custom or habit (i.e. agricultural methods)

    • Specific circumstances (i.e. strategies of war)


Criteria of evaluating the matn of the hadith
CRITERIA of evaluating the Matn Of The HADITH Prophet (PBUH)

Some scholars have recommended the following criteria to doubt certain

Hadith, so the hadith should not be automatically accepted:

  • 1- If it contradicts the Quran, the mutawatir hadith, or consensus of the scholars

  • 2- If it is against reason

  • 3- If it is against common experience

  • 4- If an event is relayed by a single individual, but it was witnessed by many, yet they did not relay it

  • 5- If the hadith mentions a severe punishment for a simple mistake, or a great reward for an insignificant good deed

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We need critical study of a hadith if the hadith is
We Need Critical Study of a HADITH Prophet (PBUH)If The Hadith Is

  • Attaching superior value to certain parts of the Quran

  • Highlighting superior value and virtue to a person or place

  • Prophecies conveying specific times and dates

  • Ideas that do not befit the Prophet and his character

  • Use of imperfect Arabic language


Famous scholars of hadith
FAMOUS SCHOLARS OF HADITH Prophet (PBUH)

Al Boukhary (Died 256 H)

Muslim (Died 261H)

Al Tirmidhi (Died 279H)

Abu Dawood (Died 275H)

IbnMajah (Died 273H)

Al Nisae (Died 303H)


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