Michel Foucault . Born:15-Oct-1926 Birthplace: Poitiers, France Died: 26-Jun-1984 Location of Death: Paris, France Cause of Death: Aids . Major Books. Disciple and punishment 1975 The history of sexuality 1976 The order of things 1966 Madness and civilization 1964
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Birthplace: Poitiers, France
Location of Death: Paris, France
Cause of Death: Aids
He states: For the definition of power, I do not have in mind a general system of domination exerted by one group over another (class oppression), a system whose effects, through successive derivations, pervades the entire social body.
The analysis made in terms of power, must not assume that the sovereignty of the astute, the form of the law, or the overall unity of domination are not fundamental forms, rather these are the terminal forms or shapes that power takes.
So each of these forms of power (sovereignty, law, domination) may in fact be present in certain contexts as terminal forms, but none are fundamental. And Foucault's first task in understanding power is therefore to develop a new method – based on a richer theory – that begins with the basic molecules of power relations and then builds to more complex forms.
کنترل اکثریت به وسیله اقلیت
They lead to new transformation known as new normative laws
This juridical form must be referred to a historical type of society in which power was exercised mainly as a means of deduction, a subtraction mechanism, a right to appropriate a portion of the wealth, a tax of products, goods and services, labor and blood, levied on the subjects. Power in this instance was essentially a right of seizure; of things, time, bodies, and ultimately life itself. It culminated in the privilege to seize hold of life in order to suppress it.
This is usually what we think of political or governmental organization. So juridical power is housed and used by the official institutions – the power owned by these institutions is exercised on individuals.
Those modes of inquiry that give themselves the status of science
The way a human being turns him or herself into a subject. e.g. Foucault says it is a self-formation in which the person is active. Not power, but the subject has been the main theme of Foucault’s research
It is a kind of taming body and making it docile. It is how you make your body work efficiently. You micromanage it. Some other common examples can be as follows:
Diet: you either want to appear more normal or feel more healthy
Learning a New language
A) Individual Bodies: between the literal surveillance of then gaze
B) Species Bodies: then surveillance is so abstract. The bell curve is well monitored. It is more metaphorical kind of surveillance