Gustation and olfaction taste and smell
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Gustation and Olfaction (Taste and Smell). chemoreceptors chemical substance dissolved in mucus G-protein-linked receptors all smell some taste sweet bitter umami (e.g., glutamate) channel-linked receptors some taste sour salt. Rhoades and Pflanzer, Human Physiology

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Gustation and Olfaction (Taste and Smell)

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Gustation and olfaction taste and smell

Gustation and Olfaction(Taste and Smell)

  • chemoreceptors

    • chemical substance dissolved in mucus

    • G-protein-linked receptors

      • all smell

      • some taste

        • sweet

        • bitter

        • umami (e.g., glutamate)

    • channel-linked receptors

      • some taste

        • sour

        • salt

Rhoades and Pflanzer,

Human Physiology

cf. Fig. 10-6 Ganong


Taste

gustatory cells

located in taste buds of the tongue

also of the pharynx, epiglottis and soft palate

about 50 - 100 per bud

hairs are microvilli

Taste

Fig. 16.6


Taste1

Taste

  • 5 (or 6) Taste Modalities

    received from all parts of the tongue

    • sour

      • H+

    • salt

      • ions, especially Na+ & Cl-

    • sweet

      • various organic substances

        • sucrose

        • phenylalanine

      • Pb

    • bitter

      • various organic substances

        • alkaloids

        • many drugs

    • umami / savory: a fifth taste

      • glutamate

    • fat: a sixth taste?

      • long chain fatty acids (via the CD36 receptor)

        J. Clin. Invest.115:3177-3184 (2005)


Neural pathways

Neural Pathways

  • Neural pathways

    • facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves 

    • medulla and thalamus 

    • parietal lobe and insula

Ganong, 20th edition

Fig. 10-5 Ganong


Smell

Smell

  • Olfactory cells are bipolar neurons

    • axons form olfactory nerve

    • cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

      • roof of nasal cavity

      • floor of skull

Fig. 16.7


Smell1

Smell

  • Sniffing increases air flow to roof of nasal cavity.

  • able to distinguish between thousands of different smells

    • total number of smell modalities not known

    • Different smells produce different patterns of stimulation on different populations of olfactory receptors.

  • Smell contributes significantly to the “taste” of food.


Olfactory pathway

olfactory nerves (sensory) 

olfactory tract (mixed) 

temporal lobe portions of limbic system

thalamic relay NOT required

Smells can rapidly trigger emotional responses.

pheromones

a chemical released by one animal that produces an emotional/behavioral response in another animal

probably exist in humans

may work via olfactory system

Olfactory Pathway

Fig. 16.8


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