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Gustation and Olfaction (Taste and Smell). chemoreceptors chemical substance dissolved in mucus G-protein-linked receptors all smell some taste sweet bitter umami (e.g., glutamate) channel-linked receptors some taste sour salt. Rhoades and Pflanzer, Human Physiology

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gustation and olfaction taste and smell
Gustation and Olfaction(Taste and Smell)
  • chemoreceptors
    • chemical substance dissolved in mucus
    • G-protein-linked receptors
      • all smell
      • some taste
        • sweet
        • bitter
        • umami (e.g., glutamate)
    • channel-linked receptors
      • some taste
        • sour
        • salt

Rhoades and Pflanzer,

Human Physiology

cf. Fig. 10-6 Ganong

taste
gustatory cells

located in taste buds of the tongue

also of the pharynx, epiglottis and soft palate

about 50 - 100 per bud

hairs are microvilli

Taste

Fig. 16.6

taste1
Taste
  • 5 (or 6) Taste Modalities

received from all parts of the tongue

    • sour
      • H+
    • salt
      • ions, especially Na+ & Cl-
    • sweet
      • various organic substances
        • sucrose
        • phenylalanine
      • Pb
    • bitter
      • various organic substances
        • alkaloids
        • many drugs
    • umami / savory: a fifth taste
      • glutamate
    • fat: a sixth taste?
      • long chain fatty acids (via the CD36 receptor)

J. Clin. Invest.115:3177-3184 (2005)

neural pathways
Neural Pathways
  • Neural pathways
    • facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves 
    • medulla and thalamus 
    • parietal lobe and insula

Ganong, 20th edition

Fig. 10-5 Ganong

smell
Smell
  • Olfactory cells are bipolar neurons
    • axons form olfactory nerve
    • cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
      • roof of nasal cavity
      • floor of skull

Fig. 16.7

smell1
Smell
  • Sniffing increases air flow to roof of nasal cavity.
  • able to distinguish between thousands of different smells
    • total number of smell modalities not known
    • Different smells produce different patterns of stimulation on different populations of olfactory receptors.
  • Smell contributes significantly to the “taste” of food.
olfactory pathway
olfactory nerves (sensory) 

olfactory tract (mixed) 

temporal lobe portions of limbic system

thalamic relay NOT required

Smells can rapidly trigger emotional responses.

pheromones

a chemical released by one animal that produces an emotional/behavioral response in another animal

probably exist in humans

may work via olfactory system

Olfactory Pathway

Fig. 16.8

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