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Marine Plants. NOAA. Primary Producers. Prokaryotes (photosynthetic & chemosynthetic) Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Eukaryotes (photosynthetic) Kingdom Protista Unicellular algae (diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophorids) Multicellular algae (green, brown, red) Kingdom Plantae

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Primary producers
Primary Producers

  • Prokaryotes (photosynthetic & chemosynthetic)

    • Domain Bacteria

    • Domain Archaea

  • Eukaryotes (photosynthetic)

    • Kingdom Protista

      • Unicellular algae (diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophorids)

      • Multicellular algae (green, brown, red)

    • Kingdom Plantae

      • Seagrasses

      • Salt marsh plants

      • Mangroves


True Plants

  • Kingdom Plantae

  • Angiosperms – flowering plants

  • Dominant on land, few in the sea

  • True leaves, stems, roots, vascular system for food/water transport

http://atlasveg.ib.usp.br/English/focara.html


Seagrasses

  • Subtidal shelf

  • Shallow

    (need light)

  • Relatively sheltered, soft-bottom areas (estuaries)

  • Mostly tropical, subtropical (eelgrass – temperate)

NOAA


Seagrasses

  • Evolved from land plants, reinvaded ocean (totally marine)

  • Roots, rhizomes stabilize sediment


Seagrasses

  • Asexual reproduction – rhizomes

  • Sexual reproduction – flowers, pollen, fruit, seeds

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/seagrass/thal14f.jpg


Turtle Grass Beds

NOAA

NOAA

NOAA

http://www.rmc.edu/directory/academics/studyabroad/images/Biol235/Pic%2014.jpg


Eelgrass Beds

http://blackcormorant.blogs.com/photos/eelgrass/gtkf_120.jpg

http://week.divebums.com/2006/Mar20-2006/lobster-eel-grass_erik-qua.jpg


Long Island

Eelgrass Bed Restoration


Long Island

Eelgrass Bed Restoration


Salt Marsh Plants

  • Intertidal, only partly submerged

  • Relatively sheltered, soft-bottom areas

    (estuaries)

  • Are land plants with salt tolerance

  • Temperate

Flax Pond →

(north of Stony Brook)


Salt Marsh Plants

  • NY distribution (yellow)

  • Also CT coast of LIS, protected bays of NJ shore

  • aka “tidal wetlands”

http://www.dec.ny.gov/images/fish_marine_images/extent.jpg


Salt Marsh Plants

high tide

low tide

http://ct.gov/dep/lib/dep/stateparks/parks/bluffpointmarshcrosssection.jpg


Salt Marsh Plants

Salt meadow cordgrass

/ Salt marsh hay

(Spartina patens)

Spike grass

(Distichlis)

Salt marsh cordgrass /

Smooth cordgrass

(Spartina alterniflora)

Stony Brook Univ. Flax Pond Digital Library

USDA Plants Database


Salt Marsh Plants

Sea lavender

(Limonium)

Glasswort

(Salicornia)

Stony Brook Univ. Flax Pond Digital Library

USDA Plants Database


Salt Marsh Plants

  • Grasses stabilize mud, soil with roots, rhizomes

  • Tussocks (Spartina cordgrass with ribbed mussels)

Stony Brook Univ. Flax Pond Digital Library


Salt Marsh Plants

  • Protect coastline, prevent erosion

  • Filter nutrients, pollutants from runoff

  • Very productive, provide food and homes for many organisms

http://news.lternet.edu/sites/news.lternet.edu/files/imagecache/full_image/images/node451img428.jpg


Mangroves

  • Intertidal, only partly submerged

  • Relatively sheltered, soft-bottom areas

    (estuaries)

  • Are land plants with salt tolerance

  • Tropical


Mangroves

  • Roots (underground and aerial), pneumatophores stabilize sediment

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/BOT311-00/Roots/Mangroves/RedMangrovePhoto.jpg


Mangroves

  • Underwater habitat

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_AiiYtVE9Gvw/TOAf6KPBDjI/AAAAAAAAACE/ZitvTNzpQ24/s1600/Firesponge.jpg

http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/

Kate Fuller (Marine Photobank) / UNEP (http://www.grida.no/photolib/detail/young-red-mangrove-tree-in-the-benner-bay-mangrove-marine-sanctuary-virgin-islands_5c52)


Mangroves

  • Underwater habitat

http://fl.biology.usgs.gov/


Mangroves

  • Seeds are “propagules”

http://www.seabean.com/guide/Rhizophora_mangle/index.htm

http://www.mangrovemania.com/images/art1-grow.jpg




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