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Gregorian Calendar. 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII. Gregorian Calendar. 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII Ten days dropped from October (October 5, 1582 became October 15). Modification 1. Gregorian Calendar. 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII Ten days dropped from October (October 5, 1582 became October 15)

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Gregorian Calendar

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Gregorian calendar

Gregorian Calendar

  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII


Gregorian calendar1

Gregorian Calendar

  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII

  • Ten days dropped from October

    (October 5, 1582 became October 15)

Modification 1


Gregorian calendar2

Gregorian Calendar

  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII

  • Ten days dropped from October

    (October 5, 1582 became October 15)

  • February gets an extra day in “century” years that can be divided by 400

Modification 2


Gregorian calendar3

Gregorian Calendar

  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII

  • Ten days dropped from October

    (October 5, 1582 became October 15)

  • February gets an extra day in “century” years that can be divided by 400

  • Difference between calendar and solar years now only in seconds


Gregorian calendar4

Gregorian Calendar

  • Roman Catholic nations of Europe adopted Gregorian calendar immediately


Even france but there was a problem

Even France….But there was a problem

  • In the early 16th Century France observed New Year’s Day on March 25 – and celebrations lasted until April 1


Even france but there was a problem1

Even France….But there was a problem

  • In the early 16th Century France observed New Year’s Day on March 25 – and celebrations lasted until April 1

  • The April 1 gift exchange


Even france but there was a problem2

Even France….But there was a problem

  • In the early 16th Century France observed New Year’s Day on March 25 – and celebrations lasted until April 1.

  • The April 1 gift exchange

  • When the Gregorian Calendar was accepted…many refused to honor it


Gregorian calendar

and…

  • Jokers made fun of these people by sending frivolous gifts and invitations to non-existent parties


Gregorian calendar

and…

  • Jokers made fun of these people by sending frivolous gifts and invitations to non-existent parties

April Fool!


Gregorian calendar5

Gregorian Calendar

  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII

  • Ten days dropped from October

    (October 5, 1582 became October 15)

  • February gets an extra day in “century” years that can be divided by 400

  • Difference between calendar and solar years now only in seconds

  • Roman Catholic nations of Europe adopted Gregorian calendar immediately

  • German states adopt by 1700


Gregorian calendar6

Gregorian Calendar

Quesion -

Which Major European

Country Would Not

Take Orders from the Vatican?

  • 1582 - Pope Gregory XIII

  • Ten days dropped from October

    (October 5, 1582 became October 15)

  • February gets an extra day in “century” years that can be divided by 400

  • Difference between calendar and solar years now only in seconds

  • Roman Catholic nations of Europe adopted Gregorian calendar immediately

  • German states adopt by 1700


Gregorian calendar

In 1640, when the first calendar was published for the public.....

Everyone knew that its days were numbered.


So why does george washington have three birthdays

So why does George Washington have three birthdays?


Gregorian calendar

George Washington’s Multiple Birthdays

And a Third One


Gregorian calendar

George Washington’s Multiple Birthdays

Ten Days Dropped

Gregorian Modification 1

And a Third One

21


Gregorian calendar

George Washington’s Multiple Birthdays

Ten Days Dropped

Gregorian Modification 1

And a Third One

One more day

Gregorian Modification 2


Gregorian calendar

Calendars are affected not only by agricultural needs but also by religious and political concerns


And how about the north korean calendar

And how about the North Korean Calendar?

  • Use a variant of the Gregorian Calendar with a Juche (self-reliance) year based on 1912

  • the birth date of Kim Il-sung as year 1

  • Calendar introduced in 1997 by Kim Jong-il


Gregorian calendar

  • In Islam, portions of 2008 are 1429 A.H.


French revolution

French Revolution

  • French invented a new Revolutionary calendar

  • October 1793 but was made effective on September 22, 1793 (both the autumnal equinox and the anniversary of the Revolution)

  • Political of Religious Concerns?


And 12 months and 30 days each

And…12 months and 30 days each…

  • it was divided into 12 months of 30 days

    • Vendémiaire (vintage month)

    • Brumaire (fog)

    • Frimaire (sleet)

    • Nivôse (snow)

    • Pluviôse (rain)

    • Ventôse (wind)

    • Germinal (seed)

    • Floréal (blossom)

    • Prairial (pasture)

    • Messidor (harvest)

    • Thermidor (heat)

    • Fructidor (fruit)

    • The remaining five days, called sans-culottides, were feast days

    • There was no week; each month was divided into three decades of ten days each, with every 10th day (décadi) a day of rest.


Now the brits

Now the Brits…

  • Mocked the French calendar calling the months Wheezy, Sneezy, and Freezy; Slippy, Drippy and Nippy; Showery, Flowery and Bowery; Wheaty, Heaty and Sweety


Oh yeah

Oh yeah…

  • Each day was divided into ten hours; each hour into 100 decimal minutes and each decimal minute into 100 decimal seconds

  • Clocks were manufactured to display decimal time

  • Didn’t catch on – abandoned in 1795 although some were in use as late as 1801


Gregorian calendar

But…

…instead of getting one day off every seven to pray in church, the peasants were miffed that they got only one day off in ten to attend a “temple of reason”


As a result

As a result…

  • Sunday (the Sabbath) was reintroduced effective Easter, April 18, 1802

  • Napoleon finally abolished the calendar in 1806

  • The good news is that the decimal system remained!


Gregorian calendar

Jigsaw II and CalendarsGeneralization: Calendars are affected not only by agricultural needs but also by religious and political concerns.

Expert Teamsfocus on how the generalization holds or does not hold in the...Hebrew Calendar

• Lunar calendar

Islamic CalendarMonths (Tishri, Nisan ...)

• Portions of 2001/2002 are• Day of Atonement ...

1422 A.H. (Anno Hegirae) Dating of Year 1

• Ramadan…Eid, Haj…

• Lunar calendar...

Mayan Calendar

• Two kinds of calendars – Chinese Calendar

a sacred one of 260 days • Emperor Huang-Ti invents

and another - • Naming of year - year of the ox, ...

a solar calendar • Chinese new year ...

• Lucky and unlucky days ...

Home

Teams


Lecturing is not always appropriate

Lecturing is not always appropriate


The case for and against

Against Discovery

1. Takes too much time

2. Kids can’t learn as much

3. They can’t discover everything

4. What if they discover a wrong answer?

For Discovery

1. Kids better remember and transfer

2. More and better interest

3. Kids learn to discover

Heuristics

The case for…and against


When to use

Direct (Expository) Teaching

• When time is limited

• When there are no readily available or easily understood materials

Indirect Teaching

• When time is available for discovery and higher-order thinking

• When there is an abundance of understandable materials

When to Use….


The lecture method is appropriate when

The Lecture Method is Appropriate When…

  • The objective is to present information

  • Information is not available in accessible sources

  • A particular organization is required

  • You want to arouse interest

  • An introduction must be made

  • The information is original or must be integrated from different sources

  • A summary or synthesis is required

  • Alternative points or clarification are required

  • Supplementary explanations are needed

    (after Good and Brophy, 1999; Gage and Berliner, 1992; Henson, 1988)


Gregorian calendar

Ausubel Model Characteristics

InteractiveDeductive Sequential

Uses Examples Present Present

Advance Subordinate

Organizer Content

Differentiate Ask for Reconcile

Subordinate or provide Differentiated

Material examples of Material

subordinate

concepts or

generalizations


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