KOREAN ART

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KOREAN ART

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1. KOREAN ART

2. Bronze, Farming scene, 8 C. BC, 7.3cm x 12.8cm 7.3cm x 12.8cm. Bronze Age Excavated in Taejon (Chungchong area), the plate has the image is of a farming scene.7.3cm x 12.8cm. Bronze Age Excavated in Taejon (Chungchong area), the plate has the image is of a farming scene.

3. Iron buckles, 4 C. BC (15.6 cm, 19 cm) Horse-shape buckle 15.6cm; Tiger-shape buckle 19cm These buckles are believed to have been made from the Early Iron Age (B.C. 300 - AD) till the early period of the Three Kingdom Era. Horse-shape buckle 15.6cm; Tiger-shape buckle 19cm These buckles are believed to have been made from the Early Iron Age (B.C. 300 - AD) till the early period of the Three Kingdom Era.

4. Bird-shaped Vessel, AD 2–3 C. The ceramics of the Iron Age take on many diverse forms. Unlike the previous period, when clay objects were hand built, the Iron Age saw the introduction of the potter's wheel. Changes in mortuary practices were also partially responsible for new kinds of ritual vessels that may reflect the influence of material culture of the Chinese Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220). In particular, objects raised on a foot or pedestal appear relatively suddenly in Korea, although such footed vessels had already been used in Bronze Age China. The earliest extant sculptural forms also date from this period, as seen in this imposing bird-shaped vessel of the second to third century. Such objects may represent tribal totems or specific beliefs in the afterlife. Made of a soft, low-fired clay, they are clearly distinguishable from the more utilitarian pots found in great quantities at residential sites. The ceramics of the Iron Age take on many diverse forms. Unlike the previous period, when clay objects were hand built, the Iron Age saw the introduction of the potter's wheel. Changes in mortuary practices were also partially responsible for new kinds of ritual vessels that may reflect the influence of material culture of the Chinese Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220). In particular, objects raised on a foot or pedestal appear relatively suddenly in Korea, although such footed vessels had already been used in Bronze Age China. The earliest extant sculptural forms also date from this period, as seen in this imposing bird-shaped vessel of the second to third century. Such objects may represent tribal totems or specific beliefs in the afterlife. Made of a soft, low-fired clay, they are clearly distinguishable from the more utilitarian pots found in great quantities at residential sites. 

5. The Three Kingdoms (57 BC-AD 668)

6. Gold Buckle, 1 C. AD The technique used on this belt-buckle is to inlay a gold plate made by cutting blue jade on another gold plate. Such techniques were frequently used for decorating gold ornaments before the Three Kingdoms period. The top part of the piece is round and the bottom is rectangular. A crescent of the head is cut into the gold plate on the top, to which a buckle is attached. Seven dragons are decorated on the gold sheet. The back of the dragon is decorated the gold particles. The feet and other parts of each dragon are stuck with gold particles, the general contours were expressed with gold thread, and the edges are surrounded by gold thread. Between the dragons are petal-like panels, in which jade is inlaid. The technique used on this belt-buckle is to inlay a gold plate made by cutting blue jade on another gold plate. Such techniques were frequently used for decorating gold ornaments before the Three Kingdoms period. The top part of the piece is round and the bottom is rectangular. A crescent of the head is cut into the gold plate on the top, to which a buckle is attached. Seven dragons are decorated on the gold sheet. The back of the dragon is decorated the gold particles. The feet and other parts of each dragon are stuck with gold particles, the general contours were expressed with gold thread, and the edges are surrounded by gold thread. Between the dragons are petal-like panels, in which jade is inlaid.

7. Hunting Scene, Koguryo, 5-6 C. Mural inside Muyong Tomb (located in Jilin, China) A mural painting showing the liberal nature of the Koguryo people through hunting. The expressive technique with designs of mountains and trees shows the characteristics of landscape painting. Mural inside Muyong Tomb (located in Jilin, China) A mural painting showing the liberal nature of the Koguryo people through hunting. The expressive technique with designs of mountains and trees shows the characteristics of landscape painting.

8. Horse-riding and Archery, Koguryo, 4 C.-5 C. Tokhung-ri excavation site. Scene of a horse-riding and archery contest.Tokhung-ri excavation site. Scene of a horse-riding and archery contest.

9. Red Bird (Phoenix), Koguryo, 7 C. Red Bird, mural in Kangso Tomb (Pyong-an Province). The bird is thought to be a mythological figure, similar to phoenix. Kangso Tomb walls have four murals of dragon, tiger, phoenix, and tortoise (below), called “The Four Spirits.” These murals are typical examples non-Buddhist Koguryo art.Red Bird, mural in Kangso Tomb (Pyong-an Province). The bird is thought to be a mythological figure, similar to phoenix. Kangso Tomb walls have four murals of dragon, tiger, phoenix, and tortoise (below), called “The Four Spirits.” These murals are typical examples non-Buddhist Koguryo art.

10. Tortoise and Snake, Koguryo, 6-7 C Mural in Kangso Great Tomb (located in Jilin, China). Mural in Kangso Great Tomb (located in Jilin, China).

11. Tomb painting, Martial Arts, Koguryo AD 209-427 Kakcho tomb (Ji-an, China, today). This painting is known to be the earliest illustration of Taekwondo, which was called Supak-hui (hand-hitting game), and, later, Taekkyon. Kakcho tomb (Ji-an, China, today). This painting is known to be the earliest illustration of Taekwondo, which was called Supak-hui (hand-hitting game), and, later, Taekkyon.

12. Gilt-bronze Contemplative Bodhisattva, Koguryo, 6-7 C. (h. 83.2 cm ) H: 83.2 cm It is wearing s coronet decorated with a pagoda figure, and the hair and hair bands flow from both side of the cononet to the shoulders. The main characteristics include the chubby but somewhat angled face, half closed eyes, well carved nose and lips, and smiling but solemn look. H: 83.2 cm It is wearing s coronet decorated with a pagoda figure, and the hair and hair bands flow from both side of the cononet to the shoulders. The main characteristics include the chubby but somewhat angled face, half closed eyes, well carved nose and lips, and smiling but solemn look.

13. Gilt-bronze Maitreya in Meditation, Paekche, (h. 93.3 cm) H. 93.3 cm Compared to the one in Slide 12, this sculpture is more sophisticated in the simplified expression of the cloth and decoration, and is more advanced in reality and three-dimensional expression. The main characteristics include the chubby face, half-closed eyes, merciful smile on the lips, and high-bridged nose. The bodhisattva Maitreya. 'Maitreya' means 'benevolent.' The bodhisattva who will appear in this world to become the next Buddha after 5,670,000,000 years when he ends his life in the Tu?ita Heaven. According to tradition, he was born into a Brahman family in southern India. His two epithets are "benevolent" and Ajita "invincible." He presides over the spread of the sangha, and protects its members. There are numerous Maitreya sutrasH. 93.3 cm Compared to the one in Slide 12, this sculpture is more sophisticated in the simplified expression of the cloth and decoration, and is more advanced in reality and three-dimensional expression. The main characteristics include the chubby face, half-closed eyes, merciful smile on the lips, and high-bridged nose. The bodhisattva Maitreya. 'Maitreya' means 'benevolent.' The bodhisattva who will appear in this world to become the next Buddha after 5,670,000,000 years when he ends his life in the Tu?ita Heaven. According to tradition, he was born into a Brahman family in southern India. His two epithets are "benevolent" and Ajita "invincible." He presides over the spread of the sangha, and protects its members. There are numerous Maitreya sutras

14. Rock-cut Buddha Triad in Sosan, Paekche (7C) H: 2.8m This relief is carved on a cliff in the valley of Mountain Gaya facing Seosan. It is one of the oldest buddhist relief in Three Kingdoms Era. H: 2.8m This relief is carved on a cliff in the valley of Mountain Gaya facing Seosan. It is one of the oldest buddhist relief in Three Kingdoms Era.

15. P’alsangjon, Popchu Temple, Wooden, Paekche 6C It is the only wooden Pagoda that remains in Korea. The one burnt during the war with Japan was remodeled by Buddhist priests under the direction of Yujong before it was rebuilt in 1626. It is the only wooden Pagoda that remains in Korea. The one burnt during the war with Japan was remodeled by Buddhist priests under the direction of Yujong before it was rebuilt in 1626.

16. Earthen ware, Shilla, AD 5-6 C. (h. 34 cm) Jar with Figurines Earthen Wares from district of King Mich'u Tumulus, Kyongju Silla 5-6th c. 34.0cm Height Jar with Figurines Earthen Wares from district of King Mich'u Tumulus,Kyongju Silla 5-6th c.34.0cm Height

17. Heavenly Horse, Shilla, 6C. (50 x 72 cm) 50 x 72cm. On the cover, made from birch bark, an imaginary animal of the heavenly horse is drawn. S shaped rhythmical pattern is colored on its outline. The crescent-shaped pattern rendered on parts of the horse indicate the intimate relationship with Scythian culture. 50 x 72cm. On the cover, made from birch bark, an imaginary animal of the heavenly horse is drawn. S shaped rhythmical pattern is colored on its outline. The crescent-shaped pattern rendered on parts of the horse indicate the intimate relationship with Scythian culture.

18. Incense Burner, Gilt-Bronze, Paekche, 7 C. (62.5 x 19 cm) 62.5cm x 19cm, 11.8kg. The top, body, and base are made separate. The symbolized form of Mt. Pongrae (Penglai) emerging from a lotus flower is supported by the head of a dragon which is straightening up. This fascinating incense burner with a phoenix on top and a dragon at the bottom seems to embody a world of the supernatural.

19. Vessels in the Shape of Warrior and His Attendant on Horseback, Shilla, 1 C. AD The warrior figure is in full armor and wears a tricornered hat and mounts a stocky horse. Liquids could be poured into the bowl-shaped cup behind the back of the warrior and then out the tubular spout projecting from the horse's breast. The horse's tail could be used as a handle. Found in Kumnyongch’ong (Golden Bells Tomb).The warrior figure is in full armor and wears a tricornered hat and mounts a stocky horse. Liquids could be poured into the bowl-shaped cup behind the back of the warrior and then out the tubular spout projecting from the horse's breast. The horse's tail could be used as a handle. Found in Kumnyongch’ong (Golden Bells Tomb).

20. Earthen ware, Cup in the Shape of tortoise, Kaya, AD 5 C. (h. 20cm) Ht. 20 cm, L. 15.4cm. The shape of this funerary vessel consists of two horns emerging from the back of a tortoise which is crouched upon a trumpet-like stand. An interesting feature of its shape is that the back of the tortoise is a clay sheet curved in a roof-like form, with the tortoise's pointed mouth resembling a bird's beak and the small eyes rendered with dots. The neck is stretched out and turned slightly as though the animal is looking for something. The horns, which most likely served as cups, have a symmetrical form when seen from the side. The pedestal, encircled by three projecting lines and pierced with small triangles, demonstrates a characteristically Kaya style. Ht. 20 cm, L. 15.4cm. The shape of this funerary vessel consists of two horns emerging from the back of a tortoise which is crouched upon a trumpet-like stand. An interesting feature of its shape is that the back of the tortoise is a clay sheet curved in a roof-like form, with the tortoise's pointed mouth resembling a bird's beak and the small eyes rendered with dots. The neck is stretched out and turned slightly as though the animal is looking for something. The horns, which most likely served as cups, have a symmetrical form when seen from the side. The pedestal, encircled by three projecting lines and pierced with small triangles, demonstrates a characteristically Kaya style.

21. Gold Crown, Shilla. A.D. 5th-6th c. (27.5cm ) This gold crown was discovered in 1921 in the Kumgwanch’ong (the Gold Crown Tomb) in Kyongju with gold objects, earthenware, bronze objects, jades, weapons and other items. Since Kumgwanch’ong is very large and the buried items are splendid, it is supposed that this was the crown of a king. The gold crown has uprights on the front and horn at the backside on the thin gold sheet, and each upright has jades and beads. There are two long pendants on the both sides, that have spangles chained to each other with gold rings and gold jades at the end.This gold crown was discovered in 1921 in the Kumgwanch’ong (the Gold Crown Tomb) in Kyongju with gold objects, earthenware, bronze objects, jades, weapons and other items. Since Kumgwanch’ong is very large and the buried items are splendid, it is supposed that this was the crown of a king. The gold crown has uprights on the front and horn at the backside on the thin gold sheet, and each upright has jades and beads. There are two long pendants on the both sides, that have spangles chained to each other with gold rings and gold jades at the end.

22. Unified Shilla (668-935)

23. Sokkuram Grotto, Unified Shilla, 8C (h. 3.26 m) h. 3.26m Kyongju A statue of the Main Buddha of Sokkuram Cave which was the culmination of the most beautiful crystallization of Buddhist culture that was diffused from India. h. 3.26m Kyongju A statue of the Main Buddha of Sokkuram Cave which was the culmination of the most beautiful crystallization of Buddhist culture that was diffused from India.

24. Sokkuram, miniature model

25. Chomsongdae (Observatory), Shilla, 7 C. (h. approx. 9 m) h. approx. 9m. Chomsongdae is the oldest observatory in East Asia. 27 layers of cut-stone bricks make bottle-shape structure, with a window of 1-meter square to the south. Two ladders inside were used to reach the top-flat space, where they observed the movement of constallation. h. approx. 9m. Chomsongdae is the oldest observatory in East Asia. 27 layers of cut-stone bricks make bottle-shape structure, with a window of 1-meter square to the south. Two ladders inside were used to reach the top-flat space, where they observed the movement of constallation.

26. Chomsongdae, illustration

27. Pulguksa Temple, Unified Shilla, 8C The construction of Pulkuksa Temple was started by Prime Minister Kim Taesong in 751 during the reign of King Kyongdok completed in 774 during the reign of King Hyegong of the Shilla Kingdom. Japanese invaders burned down more than 80 of the temple's buildings in 1593. Some of the buildings, including the main temple of Taeungjon, were later reconstructed. From 1969 to 1973, the original building sites were excavated to confirm the scale of the buildings and other burnt-down buildings were subsequently reconstructed. The construction of Pulkuksa Temple was started by Prime Minister Kim Taesong in 751 during the reign of King Kyongdok completed in 774 during the reign of King Hyegong of the Shilla Kingdom. Japanese invaders burned down more than 80 of the temple's buildings in 1593. Some of the buildings, including the main temple of Taeungjon, were later reconstructed. From 1969 to 1973, the original building sites were excavated to confirm the scale of the buildings and other burnt-down buildings were subsequently reconstructed.

28. Stone Pagoda at Punhwang Temple, Unified Shilla, 7C Made of cut stones (grey-black andesite), this pagpda was built in 634 during the reign of Queen Sondok. It originally had nine stories. The base is of 13 meters long on each side, and guarded by lions on each corner.Made of cut stones (grey-black andesite), this pagpda was built in 634 during the reign of Queen Sondok. It originally had nine stories. The base is of 13 meters long on each side, and guarded by lions on each corner.

29. Standing Buddha of Medicine (Bhaishajyaguru) Unified Shilla, 7 C. (h. 31 cm) Gilt bronze, h. 31 cm This statue dated to the first half of the seventh century, probably from the kingdom of Shilla, portrays a Buddha holding a round jewel-like object, which is believed to be a symbol of healing, leading to the tentative identification of this image as Bhaishajyaguru, the Buddha of Medicine. His left hand raised in the fear-not gesture, the figure stands in the tribhanga, or thrice-bent posture, a style prevalent in India during the Gupta period (4th-6th century). The influence of the Gupta stylistic tradition is also visible in the clinging drapery. The baring of one shoulder, characteristic of images of this type of Buddha in seventh-century Shilla, is not often found in Chinese or other Korean Buddhist sculpture and may reflect as well the influence of Indian Buddhist art, possibly transmitted through Southeast Asia and southern China.Gilt bronze, h. 31 cm This statue dated to the first half of the seventh century, probably from the kingdom of Shilla, portrays a Buddha holding a round jewel-like object, which is believed to be a symbol of healing, leading to the tentative identification of this image as Bhaishajyaguru, the Buddha of Medicine. His left hand raised in the fear-not gesture, the figure stands in the tribhanga, or thrice-bent posture, a style prevalent in India during the Gupta period (4th-6th century). The influence of the Gupta stylistic tradition is also visible in the clinging drapery. The baring of one shoulder, characteristic of images of this type of Buddha in seventh-century Shilla, is not often found in Chinese or other Korean Buddhist sculpture and may reflect as well the influence of Indian Buddhist art, possibly transmitted through Southeast Asia and southern China.

30. Gold Sutra Plates, Unified Shilla, 8 C. The artifact is composed of 19 gold plates. There are 17 columns in each   plate, and 17 Chinese characters to each column. The characters were written in the calligraphic style used in copying Sutras. The shape of the characters suggests that these were rubbings made from woodblocks. These plates are one of the many relics discovered in the five story stone pagoda at Wanggung-ri in Iksan in 1965.The artifact is composed of 19 gold plates. There are 17 columns in each   plate, and 17 Chinese characters to each column. The characters were written in the calligraphic style used in copying Sutras. The shape of the characters suggests that these were rubbings made from woodblocks. These plates are one of the many relics discovered in the five story stone pagoda at Wanggung-ri in Iksan in 1965.

31. Koryo (918-1392)

32. Buddha's Discourse on the Avatamsaka Sutura, gold and silver on indigo paper (Koryo, 1343 - 67) The scene illustrated here, from the Avatamsaka Sutra, is entitled "On entering the immeasurable realm of enlightenment: the actions and vows of Samantabhadra" and describes the moment when the pilgrim boy, Sudhana, attains final enlightenment upon his arrival before the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra. On the right side of the frontispiece, Vairocana sits cross-legged upon a lotus throne surrounded by an assembly of bodhisattvas, with a beam of light radiating from his head. To his left the Samantabhadra is seated on an octagonal lotus throne, again surrounded by bodhisattvas, with Sudhana standing before him in a posture of adoration. The whole frontispiece is rendered in extremely fine lines, with the drapery characterized by concentric and spiral patterns in the manner typical of Buddhist manuscripts from the first half of the 14th century. As in most Koryo manuscripts, it is framed by a border of vajras and wheels and the accompanying text is written in regular script. Both the front and back covers are ornamented with large lotus flowers with scrolling stems, and on the inside of the back cover, a colophon inscribed in silver indicates the name of the painter, Mungyong. The scene illustrated here, from the Avatamsaka Sutra, is entitled "On entering the immeasurable realm of enlightenment: the actions and vows of Samantabhadra" and describes the moment when the pilgrim boy, Sudhana, attains final enlightenment upon his arrival before the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra. On the right side of the frontispiece, Vairocana sits cross-legged upon a lotus throne surrounded by an assembly of bodhisattvas, with a beam of light radiating from his head. To his left the Samantabhadra is seated on an octagonal lotus throne, again surrounded by bodhisattvas, with Sudhana standing before him in a posture of adoration. The whole frontispiece is rendered in extremely fine lines, with the drapery characterized by concentric and spiral patterns in the manner typical of Buddhist manuscripts from the first half of the 14th century. As in most Koryo manuscripts, it is framed by a border of vajras and wheels and the accompanying text is written in regular script. Both the front and back covers are ornamented with large lotus flowers with scrolling stems, and on the inside of the back cover, a colophon inscribed in silver indicates the name of the painter, Mungyong.

33. Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, color on silk (Koryo, 14C) Unidentified Artist (early 14th century) Hanging scroll, ink and color on silk, 113.7 x 55.3 cm This superb painting depicts one of the most popular Buddhist deities during the Koryo period (918–1392). The usual attributes of this deity are present in this portrayal: the image of Amitabha Buddha in his crown and the willow branch that symbolizes healing, displayed in a kundika bottle placed in a clear glass or crystal bowl. Avalokiteshvara is attired in beautiful robes and sashes, with intricate gold details on his jewelry and clothing.  Holding a crystal rosary in his right hand, he is seated on a rocky outcropping with his right leg crossed and his left foot placed on a lotus-flower support. At the top of the painting, above the nimbus and aureole, is a depiction of a moon, where a hare pounds the elixir of immortality under a cassia tree, a theme based on  a well-known Chinese legend. Shown in worship of the deity are the boy Sudhana, who appears in the sutra on which the Water-Moon iconography is partially based, and a retinue of officials and supernatural beings offering precious gifts. Unidentified Artist (early 14th century)Hanging scroll, ink and color on silk, 113.7 x 55.3 cm This superb painting depicts one of the most popular Buddhist deities during the Koryo period (918–1392). The usual attributes of this deity are present in this portrayal: the image of Amitabha Buddha in his crown and the willow branch that symbolizes healing, displayed in a kundika bottle placed in a clear glass or crystal bowl. Avalokiteshvara is attired in beautiful robes and sashes, with intricate gold details on his jewelry and clothing.  Holding a crystal rosary in his right hand, he is seated on a rocky outcropping with his right leg crossed and his left foot placed on a lotus-flower support. At the top of the painting, above the nimbus and aureole, is a depiction of a moon, where a hare pounds the elixir of immortality under a cassia tree, a theme based on  a well-known Chinese legend. Shown in worship of the deity are the boy Sudhana, who appears in the sutra on which the Water-Moon iconography is partially based, and a retinue of officials and supernatural beings offering precious gifts.

34. Tripitaka Koreana, Koryo, 1236-1251 A.D. Haeinsa Temple, The Tripitaka Koreana (palman Taejanggyong) are more than 80,000 wood blocks used for printing the complete collection of Buddhist scriptures, laws, and treatises. The 81,340 blocks weigh 3.2 kg each. Together, they are the equivalent of 6,791 printed volumes, and contain 52,382,960 characters (Hanja). The hand carved blocks took over 16 years to complete. Designated as National Treasure #32, UNESCO has also identified the set as a world cultural heritage. The original set took 77 years to complete, and was finished in 1087. However, it was destroyed in 1232 by a Mongol invasion. King Kojong ordered the set remade and work began in 1236. It was felt that replacing the wood blocks would convince Buddha to intervene and help repel the Mongolian invaders. Originally carved in Kangwha Island, they were moved to Haeinsa Temple during the early years of the Choson dynasty. The Tripitaka Koreana (palman Taejanggyong) are more than 80,000 wood blocks used for printing the complete collection of Buddhist scriptures, laws, and treatises. The 81,340 blocks weigh 3.2 kg each. Together, they are the equivalent of 6,791 printed volumes, and contain 52,382,960 characters (Hanja). The hand carved blocks took over 16 years to complete. Designated as National Treasure #32, UNESCO has also identified the set as a world cultural heritage. The original set took 77 years to complete, and was finished in 1087. However, it was destroyed in 1232 by a Mongol invasion. King Kojong ordered the set remade and work began in 1236. It was felt that replacing the wood blocks would convince Buddha to intervene and help repel the Mongolian invaders. Originally carved in Kangwha Island, they were moved to Haeinsa Temple during the early years of the Choson dynasty.

35. Celadon vase , Koryo, mid-12th century (h. 42 cm) H. 42 cm, mouth D 6.2 cm, base D 17 cm. This is a characteristic maebyong (meiping, plum vase) of the Koryo dynasty, with a small mouth on opulent shoulders flowing naturally and gracefully to the foot. Its fluid lines display a refinement of shape different from that of the meiping of Song China. The inlaid decoration on the body is arranged in six horizontal rows of alternating circles, each with a crane flying upward in clouds while other cranes fly downward among clouds in the spaces between circles. H. 42 cm, mouth D 6.2 cm, base D 17 cm. This is a characteristic maebyong (meiping, plum vase) of the Koryo dynasty, with a small mouth on opulent shoulders flowing naturally and gracefully to the foot. Its fluid lines display a refinement of shape different from that of the meiping of Song China. The inlaid decoration on the body is arranged in six horizontal rows of alternating circles, each with a crane flying upward in clouds while other cranes fly downward among clouds in the spaces between circles.

36. Wine Ewer, Koryo, ca. 1100 (h. 26.6 cm) Celadon with incised and carved design of geese, water birds, and reeds, h. 26.6 cm Celadon with incised and carved design of geese, water birds, and reeds, h. 26.6 cm

37. Inlaid celadon bottle, Koryo, 12th century (h. 33.6 cm) Height: 33.6 cm, Diameter: 8.5 cm (mouth), 12.9 cm (base) This pear-shaped bottle with its long, tapering neck is a celadon of exquisite quality and attests to the dexterous craftsmanship of Koryo potters. The vessel form had its origins in the Chinese Song celadons, but the harmonious and refined Koryo wares far surpass their Chinese prototypes in both form and decoration. The bottle is skillfully adorned with a carved bamboo design as each stalk splits into two at the neck with the joints executed in incised double lines. The lustrous, jade-green glaze is evenly applied over the entire surface, but has gathered thickly along the incised depressions. The glaze has some crackle and is flecked with brown spots where the vessel was exposed to oxidizing flames. The glazed base is neatly trimmed and has clay spur-marks. Height: 33.6 cm, Diameter: 8.5 cm (mouth), 12.9 cm (base)This pear-shaped bottle with its long, tapering neck is a celadon of exquisite quality and attests to the dexterous craftsmanship of Koryo potters. The vessel form had its origins in the Chinese Song celadons, but the harmonious and refined Koryo wares far surpass their Chinese prototypes in both form and decoration. The bottle is skillfully adorned with a carved bamboo design as each stalk splits into two at the neck with the joints executed in incised double lines. The lustrous, jade-green glaze is evenly applied over the entire surface, but has gathered thickly along the incised depressions. The glaze has some crackle and is flecked with brown spots where the vessel was exposed to oxidizing flames. The glazed base is neatly trimmed and has clay spur-marks.

38. Ewer with Lid, Celadon glaze, Koryo (12C)

39. Celadon Pillow in the Shape of a Lion, Koryo H 10.5 cm, L 21.8 cm, W 8.2 cm. This headrest, with two sculptured lions seated back to back, demonstrates the outstanding carving technique of the Koryo potter. While the lions are notably realistic, details are boldly ignored to give emphasis to the overall symmetry of form. A remarkable harmony has been achieved to balance the inherent strength of the lion with the gentle smoothness of the exterior celadon surface. A thin, curved surface resembling a lotus leaf is placed on top of the lions' heads, with the upper surface incised with fine veins and the sides of the supporting base incised with a lotus band. The lustrous and translucent jade-green celadon glaze has been evenly applied, and the eyes of the lions are punctuated with underglaze iron dots. The glazed foot is an extension of the base supporting the lions, and small silica spur-marks remain visible. H 10.5 cm, L 21.8 cm, W 8.2 cm. This headrest, with two sculptured lions seated back to back, demonstrates the outstanding carving technique of the Koryo potter. While the lions are notably realistic, details are boldly ignored to give emphasis to the overall symmetry of form. A remarkable harmony has been achieved to balance the inherent strength of the lion with the gentle smoothness of the exterior celadon surface. A thin, curved surface resembling a lotus leaf is placed on top of the lions' heads, with the upper surface incised with fine veins and the sides of the supporting base incised with a lotus band. The lustrous and translucent jade-green celadon glaze has been evenly applied, and the eyes of the lions are punctuated with underglaze iron dots. The glazed foot is an extension of the base supporting the lions, and small silica spur-marks remain visible.

40. Celadon Incense Burner, Koryo (h. 15.3 cm) It is an incense burner of celadon porcelain of the earlier Koryo Kingdom of which height is 15.3 ? and diameter of plinth is 11.2 ?. It consists of a lid and body, and the lid has a globular part with hole for the smoke of incense and a stand below it. In each intersection point of the globular part, one white dot is decorated. The body consists of two parts, and its upper part has a round burner type wrapped by several leaves of chrysanthemum supported by another big leaves of chrysanthemum. The below part is a pedestal holding the body of the burner and is supported by three rabbits on their backs. In the side of the pedestal, vine is described, and black dots are expressed for the eyes of rabbit. The glaze is gray and green color and has a subtle polish. This work is regarded as inlaid celadon porcelain, but it has various art techniques, which are rare for the porcelain of the Koryo Kingdom. It has relatively lots of delicate art decorations, but it gives a sense of security with its excellent balance and harmony. It is an incense burner of celadon porcelain of the earlier Koryo Kingdom of which height is 15.3 ? and diameter of plinth is 11.2 ?. It consists of a lid and body, and the lid has a globular part with hole for the smoke of incense and a stand below it. In each intersection point of the globular part, one white dot is decorated. The body consists of two parts, and its upper part has a round burner type wrapped by several leaves of chrysanthemum supported by another big leaves of chrysanthemum. The below part is a pedestal holding the body of the burner and is supported by three rabbits on their backs. In the side of the pedestal, vine is described, and black dots are expressed for the eyes of rabbit. The glaze is gray and green color and has a subtle polish. This work is regarded as inlaid celadon porcelain, but it has various art techniques, which are rare for the porcelain of the Koryo Kingdom. It has relatively lots of delicate art decorations, but it gives a sense of security with its excellent balance and harmony.

41. Choson (1392-1909)

42. 'A Dream Visit to Peach Blossom Land' by An Kyon (b. 1418)

43. 'Sage Contemplating the Water' by Kang Hui-an (1419 - 64)

44. 'Clearing after the Rain on Inwang Mountain', by Chong Son (1676 - 1759)

45. Portrait of Chae Che-gong (1720-99) aged 70, Yi Myong-ki (1760-1820)

46. ‘A Beauty’ by Shin Yun-bok (1758-?), Choson

47. Self Portrait by Yun Tu-so (1668-1715)

48. 'Puppies, Birds and Flowers' by Yi Am (early 16th centry)

49. Evil-repelling tiger, Artist unknown, 18C

50. White Porcelain Jar, Choson

51. White Porcelain Jar, Choson (17-18 C.)

52. White Porcelain Jar (“Moon Jar”), 18C. h. 44.5 cm) Height: 44.5 cm, Diameter: 21.5 cm (mouth), 16.5 cm (base) This round jar is exemplary of the so-called "moon jars" believed to have been produced in the Kumsa-ri kilns, active during the mid-Choson period. Praised for exhibiting the refined beauty of plain white porcelain, the moon jars were made in two separately thrown upper and lower parts, whose rims were joined at the waist before being fired at a temperature high enough to achieve porcelaneousness. Because vessels made in this manner often collapsed at the seam during firing, it was quite rare for a perfectly round form to emerge from the kiln. This particular jar is one such rare example, with almost no trace of the seam. It is further enhanced by the highly translucent glaze of superior quality applied upon a fine white porcelain clay. The surface is dappled with light-brown stains, which seem not to have been removed in order to create an effect of clouds floating above the moon. The calm, solid proportion of this masterpiece of ceramic art exhibits the remarkably sophisticated yet unpretentious esthetic of the Chosen period. Height: 44.5 cm, Diameter: 21.5 cm (mouth), 16.5 cm (base) This round jar is exemplary of the so-called "moon jars" believed to have been produced in the Kumsa-ri kilns, active during the mid-Choson period. Praised for exhibiting the refined beauty of plain white porcelain, the moon jars were made in two separately thrown upper and lower parts, whose rims were joined at the waist before being fired at a temperature high enough to achieve porcelaneousness. Because vessels made in this manner often collapsed at the seam during firing, it was quite rare for a perfectly round form to emerge from the kiln. This particular jar is one such rare example, with almost no trace of the seam. It is further enhanced by the highly translucent glaze of superior quality applied upon a fine white porcelain clay. The surface is dappled with light-brown stains, which seem not to have been removed in order to create an effect of clouds floating above the moon. The calm, solid proportion of this masterpiece of ceramic art exhibits the remarkably sophisticated yet unpretentious esthetic of the Chosen period.

53. Blue and White Porcelain Water Dropper on an Openwork Cloud and Dragon Design, Choson (19 C.)

54. Blue and White Porcelain Jar with Plum and Bamboo Design, Choson (15C) National Treasure No.219National Treasure No.219

55. Blue and White Porcelain Faceted Bottle with Bamboo Design, Choson (18C) National Treasure No.258National Treasure No.258

56. Punch'ong Flask with Iron-painted Floral Design, 16 C. (h. 26.4 cm) Height: 26.4 cm Diameter: 5.8 cm (mouth), 7.8 cm (base) The tall, sturdy foot of this punch'ong flask gives stability to the somewhat weakened body. The bottle was dipped in white slip, resulting in a uniform background upon which a simple plant motif was painted in black iron oxide. Recent investigations of kiln sites have proven that punch'ong vessels of this type were made along the southern coastal areas of Cholla Province. The almost naive and rhythmical effect of this unique style displays a markedly distinct esthetic sensibility from that found on wares manufactured in the kilns around Mt. Kyeryong. Height: 26.4 cm Diameter: 5.8 cm (mouth), 7.8 cm (base)The tall, sturdy foot of this punch'ong flask gives stability to the somewhat weakened body. The bottle was dipped in white slip, resulting in a uniform background upon which a simple plant motif was painted in black iron oxide. Recent investigations of kiln sites have proven that punch'ong vessels of this type were made along the southern coastal areas of Cholla Province. The almost naive and rhythmical effect of this unique style displays a markedly distinct esthetic sensibility from that found on wares manufactured in the kilns around Mt. Kyeryong.

57. Punch'ong Rice-Bale-shaped Bottle with Stamped Rope-Curtain Pattern, 15 C. (h. 17.42 cm) Height: 17.2 cm Diameter: 4.3 cm (mouth), 10.3 cm x 9.0 cm (base) The unique shape of this bottle was attained by battering the surface while the clay was still wet, resulting in a form that is wider than it is tall. The effect is a comforting stability with traces of the mallet remaining on the surface adding to the strength and vitality of the piece. The entire surface is covered with a minute route-curtain pattern stamped in white slip. The inside of the mouth has a band of inlaid arabesques and both the flat sides have a stamped chrysanthemum blossom surrounded by triple lines. The transparent, pale blue glaze successfully enlivens the ornament. The bottle has no base but was fired by attaching sand spurs to one side. Height: 17.2 cm Diameter: 4.3 cm (mouth), 10.3 cm x 9.0 cm (base)The unique shape of this bottle was attained by battering the surface while the clay was still wet, resulting in a form that is wider than it is tall. The effect is a comforting stability with traces of the mallet remaining on the surface adding to the strength and vitality of the piece. The entire surface is covered with a minute route-curtain pattern stamped in white slip. The inside of the mouth has a band of inlaid arabesques and both the flat sides have a stamped chrysanthemum blossom surrounded by triple lines. The transparent, pale blue glaze successfully enlivens the ornament. The bottle has no base but was fired by attaching sand spurs to one side.

58. Piwon (Seoul)

59. Kyongbok Palace (Seoul)

60. Kyongbok Palace, Hwangwon Pond

61. Yangban House, men’s quarter, Yangdong

62. Yangban House, inner chamber, Yangdong

63. Traditional Houses, Yangdong

64. ?

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