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Benefit of International Standards for multinational companies (Forum). Shuji Hirakawa Ph.D., IEEE Fellow Toshiba Corporation IEC Technical Committee 100 (TC 100) Secretary ITU-R Working Party 6M (WP 6M) Vice Chairman Proceedings of the IEEE, Editorial Board Member. Contents.

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Benefit of international standards for multinational companies forum

Benefit of International Standards for multinational companies (Forum)

Shuji Hirakawa Ph.D., IEEE Fellow

Toshiba Corporation

IEC Technical Committee 100 (TC 100) Secretary

ITU-R Working Party 6M (WP 6M) Vice Chairman

Proceedings of the IEEE, Editorial Board Member


Contents

Contents

  • Introducing myself

  • Brief Introduction of IEC/TC 100

  • Why International Standards are so important

    • Official Statement: WTO TBT / GPA

    • Realize Interoperability / Satisfy users’ mind

    • Expand the Market

    • Highway to reach foreign markets

    • Provide scales for measurements

  • How to join international standardization works

  • Development of ITU-R Recommendations

  • Development of IEC Deliverables

  • Between IEC and ITU-R for digital broadcasting


Introducing myself 1

Introducing myself (1)

  • At first, I introduce my background in international standardization activities:

    • 1991: Join ITU-R TG 11/2 (digital studio interface) meeting for the first time, to modify ITU-R Recommendation 711.

    • 1994: Develop a draft new Recommendation ITU-R BT.1204 as the editor under ITU-R WP 11B (Television System).

    • March 1997: Join ITU-T SG 9 (Cable Television and primary & secondary distribution) for developing ITU-T Recommendation J.112 for cable modem specifications (DOCSIS).

    • December 1997: Appointed to ITU-R TG 11/5 (interactive television) Vice Chairman. After this point, I have been visiting Geneva frequently, twice or more per year.

    • September 2000, ITU-R Working Party 6M (interactive and multimedia broadcasting) was created from former TG 11/5 and JTG 10-11 (multimedia broadcasting). I was appointed to its Vice Chairman.


Introduce myself 2

Introduce myself (2)

  • Continued:

    • November 2000: Join ISO/TC 204 (Intelligent Transport Systems) Naples meeting for the first time to ISO as Category A liaison from ITU-R WP 6M

    • June 2003: Japan NC (National Committee) decided to undertake IEC/TC 100 (audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment) secretariat from Netherlands NC. In October 2003, I was appointed to TC 100 Secretary from the beginning of next year.

    • Since January 1st 2004, I have been in charge of the Secretary of IEC/TC 100.


Brief introduction of iec tc 100

Brief Introduction of IEC/TC 100

Officers of IEC/TC 100

  • TC 100 Chairman (US NC)

    • Mr. Mark Hyman (SMPTE) Staff Engineer at the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineer

    • His terms of office were extended until October 2010

  • TC 100 Secretariat: Japan NC (Since 2004/01/01)

    • Secretary:Dr. Shuji Hirakawa (Toshiba)

    • Assistant Secretaries:Mr. Tadashi Ezaki (Sony) Mr. Norimasa Minami (Panasonic)


Participations to iec tc 100

Participations to IEC/TC 100

  • 22 - Participating Members:

    • Australia, Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, Rep. of Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom and United States

    • Recently, Australia upgrade its position from O to P.

  • 18 - Observing Members:

    • Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Slovakia, Sweden and Thailand


History of tc 100

History of TC 100


Iec tc 100 scope

IEC/TC 100 Scope

  • To prepare international publications in the field of audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment. These publications mainly include specification of the performance, methods of measurement for consumer and professional equipment and their application in systems and its interoperability with other systems or equipment.

  • NOTE: multimedia is the integration of any form of audio, video, graphics, data and telecommunication and integration includes the production, storage, processing, transmission, display and reproduction of such information

    • TC 100 covers both ‘Systems’ and ‘Products’

    • TC 100 addresses both consumer and professional electronics


Benefit of international standards for multinational companies forum

AV & Multimedia Systems and Equipment

Professional

Consumer

IEC 60728 series

(Cable system)

IEC 62360 (ISDB)

IEC 62216 (DVB)

IEC 62002 (DVB-H)

IEC 61016 (D1)

IEC 61189 (D2)

IEC 62071 (D7)

IEC 62141 (D16)

IEC 62289 (D10)

IEC 62336 (D11)

IEC 62330 (HD-D5)

IEC 62447 (D12)

IEC 62261 (TV Metadata)

IEC 60107 series

(TV)

IEC 60268-5

(Loudspeaker)

IEC 60315 series (Radio)

IEC 61883

(Digital AV I/F)

IEC 62229

IEC 62448

(e-Book)

IEC 61606 series

(Audio measurement)

IEC 60908 (CD)

IEC 61606-4

(PC audio)

IEC 62389

(DVD player

measurement)

IEC 61909 (MD)

IEC 61966 series

(Color management)

IEC 60958, 61937

(Digital Audio I/F)

IEC 62318, 62328

(Multimedia

Home server)

IEC 62227

(DRM)

IEC 61834 series

(DV format)

IEC 61603 (IR)

IEC 60268 series

(Audio System)


How it works

How it works

  • TC 100 operates in Project Teams (PTs) that are relating to the technology or applications

  • PTs report to the respective Technical Areas (TAs)

  • TAs have Technical Area Manager (TAM) and Technical Secretary (TS)

  • TC 100 has a fast standardization procedure (§10.4 of Document 100/1180/INF)

    • For example, two DLNA Specifications were approved as IEC 62481-1 and -2 without negative voting using this procedure

    • In this case, it took 7 months after AGM Helsinki meeting in May 2006 for the final approval on December 15, 2006


Current tc 100 structure

Current TC 100 Structure

  • 10 TAs currently

  • General Maintenance Team (GMT) Responsible for the maintenance of work within TC 100

  • Advisory Group on Management (AGM) of the Committee

    • TC and TAs management teams

  • Advisory Group on Strategy (AGS)

    • It works as an incubator of new standardization areas

    • Projects (PJs) - directly under TC 100


Newly established ta 9 ta 10 and ta 11

Newly established TA 9, TA 10 and TA 11

  • In August 2006, TC 100 established two new Technical Areas, TA 9 and TA 10

    • TA 9: Audio, video and multimedia applications for end-user network

    • TA 10: Multimedia e-publishing and e-book

  • In October 2007, TC 100 added one new Technical Area, TA 11

    • TA 11: Quality for audio, video and multimedia systems

      Following are the candidates for TS and TAM.

      • TS: Mr. Junichi Yoshio (JP)

      • TAM: Mr. Mark Yonge (UK)


Efficient working procedures 1

Efficient Working Procedures (1)

  • TC 100 has its own ‘Guidelines and Procedures’

    • Current document is 100/1180/INF

  • Special criteria for NP

    • Experts (including PL) should be from at least 2 NCs under 2/3 majority of votes

  • English only working documents circulation

  • TC 100 Fast Standardization Procedure (you will see the detail later)


Efficient working procedure

Efficient Working Procedure

  • TC 100 has its own ‘Guidelines and Procedures’

    • Current document is 100/1180/INF

  • Special criteria for NP

    • Experts (including PL) should be from at least 2 NCs under 2/3 majority of votes

  • English only working documents circulation

  • TC 100 Fast Standardization Procedure (you will see the detail later)

  • Statistics on the work accomplished by TC 100:

    • Number of standards developed in the last 7 years: 146


  • Recent topics 1

    Recent topics (1)

    • Contributions to Environmental Issues

      • IEC TC 100/TA 1 is now revising IEC 62087 (Methods of measurement for the power consumption of audio, video and related equipment) in order to update TV receiver power consumption measurement part.

      • ENERGY STAR Product Manager for Consumer Electronics & Office Equipment, announcing that a Draft version of IEC 62087 which includes new active mode power consumption testing procedures, is available for ENERGY STAR stakeholders.

      • TC 100 is just started the circulation for Set Top Box (STB) power consumption measurement method proposed by Australian NC.

        • See next slide for an example of Measurements of US Set-top boxes 2006


    Stb power consumption measurement it s always on

    STB power consumption measurement: it’s always on!

    Measurements of US Set-top boxes 2006


    Recent topics 2

    Recent topics (2)

    • Realizing interoperability in the world

      • TA 2 has the title: Colour measurement and management in multimedia systems and equipment

      • IEC 61966: Multimedia systems and equipment – colour measurement and management

        • Part 1: General (PWI)

        • Part 2-1: Colour management – Default RGB colour space – sRGB (Ed.1:1999), Amd 1 (Ed.1:2003)

        • Part 2-2: Colour management – Extended RGB colour space – scRGB (Ed.1:2003)

        • Part 2-3: Colour management – Default YCC colour space – sYCC (merged to Part 2-1 Amd 1)

        • Part 2-4: Colour management – Extended-gamut YCC colour space for video applications – xvYCC (Ed.1, 100/967/CDV)

        • Part 2-5: Colour management – Optional RGB colour space – opRGB (ANW, 100/872/NP)


    Recent topics 3

    Recent topics (3)

    • Realizing interoperability in the world: continued

      • Part 3: Equipment using cathode ray tubes (Ed.1:2000)

      • Part 4: Equipment using liquid crystal display panels (Ed.1:2000)

      • Part 5: Equipment using plasma display panels (Ed.1:2000)

      • Part 6: Front projection displays (Ed.1:2005)

      • Part 7-1: Colour printers – Reflective prints – RGB inputs (Ed.1:2001), (Ed.2, 100/907/CDV)

      • Part 7-2: Colour printers – Reflective prints – CMYK inputs (PWI)

  • DLNA realizes interconnection between audio, video and multimedia systems and equipment

    • TC 100 developed two International Standards based on DLNA specifications, IEC 62481-1 and -2. (See next side)


  • Why international standards are so important 1

    Why International Standards are so important (1)

    • Official Statements:

      • Compliant to WTO TBT (Technical Barriers to Trade)

        • Technical regulations and product standards may vary from country to country. Having many different regulations and standards makes life difficult for producers and exporters. If regulations are set arbitrarily, they could be used as an excuse for protectionism. The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade tries to ensure that regulations, standards, testing and certification procedures do not create unnecessary obstacles.

      • Respect WTO GPA (Government Procurement Agreement)

        • The GPA is based on the principles of openness, transparency and non-discrimination, which apply to Parties' procurement covered by the Agreement, to the benefit of Parties and their suppliers, goods and services.


    Why international standards are so important 2

    Why International Standards are so important (2)

    • Realize Interoperability

      • One of the major objectives of International standards is to realize the interoperability among equipment and systems

      • IEC TC 100 provides a lot of standards to interconnect equipment and systems: Physically and Logically

        • DLNA standards are now in IEC domain. IEC 62481-1 and -2

    • Satisfy users’ mind

      • End-user can choose his/her own unit from the retail market

      • End-user enjoys the best use of his/her property Satisfy users’ mind

    • Set maker also enjoys the benefit of standardization

      • Set maker can choose necessary parts among several vendors


    Why international standards are so important 3

    Why International Standards are so important (3)

    • Expand the Market

      • It is better to use the parts supplied by multi-venders to reduce the risk of short supply

        • Last year, an earthquake destroyed the factory that supplied 70 % of automotive engine piston rings.

      • Semiconductor parts are just the case

      • Movie content distributed by DVD is the typical case


    Why international standards are so important 4

    Why International Standards are so important (4)

    • Build highways to reach foreign markets

      • Systems and equipment compliant to International Standards can reach to anywhere in the world (theoretically)

        • However, like a frequency allocation of radio communication system, there are still local deviations country by country

      • It is our task to reduce the local standards/regulations

      • Only International Standard could override the barriers of domestic standards


    Why international standards are so important 5

    Why International Standards are so important (5)

    • Contribute to society

      • To provide the common scale

      • TC 100 is now developing the TV power measurement specification

    • For new technology areas, it is very important in early stage to develop terminologies and reference models

      • In order to communicate each other without misunderstanding

      • Proper Mutual understanding is a key for success.


    Development of iec deliverables 1

    Development of IEC Deliverables (1)

    • Before coming to IEC, manufactures establish a Consortium/Forum for developing de-facto standards at first.

      • Single manufacture might not cover all digital technologies of recent systems by itself.

      • This fact forces relevant manufactures to cooperate together for establishing a new high-tech system through Consortium/Forum activities.


    Development of iec deliverables 2

    Development of IEC Deliverables (2)

    • Consortium/Forum chooses an appropriate International Standardization Body

      • For example, Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) considered this issue and chose IEC/TC 100.

      • UPnP chose ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 25

    • Deference between IEC and JTC 1

      • ISO/IEC JTC 1 has more P/O members than IEC TC 100

      • JTC 1 considers P-member abstain voting at NWIP ballot as negative one. ISO and IEC consider it as no count. JTC 1 has its own operational directives.

    • In some case, Consortium/Forum does not have the right to submit NWIP to IEC, a relevant National Committee submit a NWIP.


    Development of iec deliverables 3

    Development of IEC Deliverables (3)

    • Establish a new Project Team

      • IEC and ISO requires NWIP ballot in order to start Project. In ITU, we could choose an appropriate Question from the list.

      • Criteria ask positive voting percentage and the number of experts from NCs as:

        • 50 % and more for positive voting

        • 25 % and more experts of P-members

      • IEC/TC 100 has its own rule for the number of experts (see next page)

      • ISO/IEC JTC 1 has more rigid rule for approving NWIP as it is noted in previous page. Abstain of P-member voting counts as Negative according to its directives.


    Development of iec deliverables 4

    Development of IEC Deliverables (4)

    • Fast truck approval procedure for well prepared documents:

      • Level 1: Takes 1 month

      • Level 2: Takes 5 months

      • Level 3: Takes 2 months

      • Total :8 months

    • This procedure is applied to mostly the documents provided by established SDOs.

      • DVB-T/H Specifications

      • DLNA Specifications

    • ISO/IEC JTC 1 has a similar procedure for fast approval

      • Mainly applied to the inputs proposed by “ecma International”


    Development of itu r recommendations 1

    Development of ITU-R Recommendations (1)

    • I participated ITU-R Joint Working Party 10-11S (JWP 10-11S/Broadcasting Satellite) in 1998 in order to modify Recommendation ITU-R BO.1130. The following show example of standard (Recommendation) developing procedure in ITU-R:

    • To join:

      • ITU has three kinds of membership:

        • Member States (Administrators)

        • Sector Members and Associates (The entities other than Administrators)

        • Toshiba Corporation is a Sector Member in both ITU-R and ITU-T


    Development of itu r recommendations 2

    Development of ITU-R Recommendations (2)

    • Find an appropriateQuestion:

      • In order to develop a new Recommendation based on your proposal, an appropriate Question is necessary in advance.

      • ITU-R has a lot of Questions for various purposes

      • In the case to modify an existing Recommendation, there is no need to find a Question because at least one Question is already given to the target Recommendation. Recommendation ITU-R B. 1130 was developed using Question ITU-R 93/10.


    Development of itu r recommendations 3

    Development of ITU-R Recommendations (3)

    • Contribute input documents:

      • In my case, the first input document was submitted to JWP10-11S meeting in October 1998. This document requested JWP 10-11S to modify “Shadow Report” for digital audio broadcasting systems.

        • In Japan, the new satellite mobile broadcasting system was still at developing stage. In this timeframe, I could not submit the document to modify Rec. ITU-R BO.1130.

      • The second input document was submitted to JWP 10-11S in October 1999 to modify Rec. ITU-R BO.1130

        • Before the JWP 10-11S meeting, Japanese domestic standardization committee approved the domestic specifications. I was able to submit the document for asking the revision of Recommendation ITU-R BO.1130.

      • JWP 10-11S approved to send revised Rec. ITU-R BO.1130 to SG.

      • Joint SG (Study Group) 10-11 (Current SG 6) Extraordinary Meeting in December 1999 adopted revised Recommendation ITU-R BO.1130


    Development of itu r recommendations 4

    Development of ITU-R Recommendations (4)

    • Adoption and Approval (Two stages for approval):

      • Two adoption procedures by Study Group

        • Procedure for adoption at a Study Group meeting

        • Procedure for adoption by a Study Group by correspondence

      • Two final approval procedures by member states:

        • by consultation between Radiocommunication Assemblies

        • at a Radiocommunication Assembly (once in 3 – 4 years)

    • Fast approval procedure for non-regulatory issues

      • ITU-R provides faster approval procedure for non-regulatory issues.

      • The procedure is called as PSAA (Procedure for the Simultaneous Adoption and Approval by correspondence)


    Development of itu r recommendations 5

    Development of ITU-R Recommendations (5)

    • Approval procedure:

      • Normal procedure

        • When the document becomes available after SG meeting, adoption process starts

        • Wait responses in 2 months for adoption process

        • 1 month after adoption completed by SG, approval process by consultation starts

        • Voting in 3 months.

        • 70 % or more favour voting, a new or revised Recommendation is approved

      • At Radiocommunication Assembly

        • After justification to apply the document to RA

        • With 70 % or more favour voting


    Development of itu r recommendations 6

    Development of ITU-R Recommendations (6)

    • Finally, revised Recommendation ITU-R BO. 1130 was approved in July 2000. From the beginning, it took almost 2 years to the final goal

    • Japanese satellite mobile broadcasting system is given the name ‘Digital System E’ by Rec. ITU-R BO.1130.

    • Digital System E is deployed by one broadcasting service provider outside Japan.


    Key points for standardization at itu r

    Key Points for standardization at ITU-R

    • Avoid a surprise attack

      • The timing of the first contribution is important.

      • You should avoid ‘non tangible proposal with domestic firm decision’ when you join the group for the first time.

    • Before the completion of adoption procedure, any member state has the right to stop approval process of a new or revised Recommendation.

      • Any member state has the right of veto (See Next Slide)

    • Need several months for adoption and approval procedures after SG level approval

      • As I have explained using other slides


    In the case of itu t

    In the case of ITU-T

    • ITU-R and ITU-T have similar structure however there are some differences:

      • IEC and ISO have the common ‘Directives’ however ITU-R and ITU-T have different ‘Resolutions’ each other

      • ITU-R has Resolution 1-5 for developing Recommendation

      • ITU-T has A-series Recommendations of this category

      • For fast approval procedure, ITU-T has AAP (Alternative Approval Procedure). AAP is the fastest procedure among all three International Standardization Bodies (IEC, ISO and ITU).

      • The shortest case using AAP is:

        • At SG meeting, SG approved to use AAP and to consent a new or revised Recommendation. ITU-T Secretariat circulates last-call document by e-mail and waits one month for comment. If there is no comment, a new or revised Recommendation is approved.


    Between iec and itu r for digital broadcasting

    Between IEC and ITU-R for digital broadcasting

    • ITU-R SG 6 and IEC TC 100 have implicit but very clear boundary in Broadcasting standardization

      • TV Broadcasting standardization has long history near 50 years since 1960s

      • ITU-R SG 6 including its former SGs 10 and 11 has established good relationship with IEC

        • Especially, receivers and professional recording equipment

        • ITU-R covers broadcasting side and IEC covers receiver side


    Digital broadcasting case

    Digital broadcasting case

    • ITU-R developed Recommendations for broadcasting systems and IEC did International Standards of receivers

    • The following table shows an example of digital broadcasting system Recommendations and their receivers’ International Standards


    The world is not so wide

    The world is not so wide

    • Through my experience, experts in international standardisation arena are closely interconnected

    • Especially in my field, multimedia and digital broadcasting areas, I know many experts who are working in multiple groups in IEC, ISO/IEC JTC 1, ITU-T and ITU-R.

    • In this world, it is very important to know each other in order to accomplish his/her mandates

    • How many experts you know, it is a real, how do I say, the real asset of experts themselves in this society.


    Thank you for your attention

    谢 谢Thank you for your attention

    Shuji Hirakawa, IEC TC 100 Secretary

    [email protected]


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