The pressure to expand
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The Pressure to Expand

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The pressure to expand

The Pressure to Expand

Angela Brown

Chapter 9

Section 1

Learning targets

Learning Targets:

  • Explain some of the reasons for the growth of imperialism around the world.

  • Summarize the American view regarding imperialism prior to 1890.

The pressure to expand

  • U.S. powerful industrial economy = overproduction of food and goods = financial panic and depression

  • Some people began to believe that the U.S. had a duty to carry democratic values and Christianity to others around the globe.

Growth of imperialism

Growth of Imperialism

  • The late 1800s marked the peak of European imperialism with much of Africa and Asia under foreign domination.

  • Under imperialism, stronger nations attempt to create empires by dominating weaker nations – economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.

Why imperialism grew

Why Imperialism Grew

  • Economic Factors – nations needed new markets and natural resources: rubber and petroleum

  • Nationalistic Factors– nationalism – devotion to one’s country European nations competed for large empires

The pressure to expand

  • Military Factors- European military forces were superior to African and Asians due to technology. Required fuel/supplies for bases around the world.

  • Humanitarian Factors– Colonial officials, doctors, and missionaries believed they had a duty to spread the blessings of Western Civilization, including law, medicine and religion

Europe leads the way

Europe Leads the Way

  • Improved transportation and communication aided European nations imperialism.

  • By 1890 the U.S. wanted to join in

  • Supporters of expansion denied that the U.S. sought to annex foreign lands.

  • Annex – join new territory to an existing country

The u s and imperialism

The U.S. and Imperialism

  • 1866, Sec. Of State, Seward sent 50,000 troops to the Mexican border after France placed an emperor on the Mexican throne.

  • The French abandoned their venture.

  • 1867 Seward bought Alaska from Russia “Seward’s Folly”.

The pressure to expand

  • Most Americans ridiculed the purchase of “walrus covered icebergs”

  • Seward educated the nation about Alaska’s rich resources

  • The Senate ratified the purchase.

The pressure to expand

  • 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry, sailed into Tokyo Bay and convinced Japan to open trade relations with the United States.

  • 1860 – U.S. and Europe signed treaties with China for extended trade.

  • 1867, Seward annexed the uninhabited Midway Islands in the Pacific Ocean as refueling and repair stations for naval vessels.

The pressure to expand

  • Midway island is located 1/3 of the way between Hawaii and Tokyo.

  • 1875, treaty with Hawaii to sell sugar to U.S. duty free, as long as they did not sell or lease territory to any foreign power.

  • 1890s opinions regarding international affairs differed among Americans.

Promoting economic growth

Promoting Economic Growth

  • Many business leaders agreed the economic problems of the U.S. could only be solved by expanding its markets.

  • In 1880s and 1890s Standard Oil, American Telephone and Telegraph, McCormick farm machines, Singer sewing machines, Kodak cameras and Sherman-Williams paint had all become popular internationally.

The pressure to expand

  • 1884, Minor C. Keith provided financial services to the Costa Rican government and won long-term leases for lands and railroad lines.

  • 1913 Keith’s United Fruit Company exported 50 million bunches of bananas a year to U.S. and dominated governments of Costa Rica, Guatamala, and Honduras.

  • Nicknamed Central American nations banana republics.

Protecting american security

Protecting American Security

  • Naval officers joined with business to convince Congress to build modern steam-powered steel-hulled ships to protect overseas trade.

  • 1881 Congress established a naval advisory board

  • 1883 authorized the building of three cruisers and two battleships, including U.S.S Maine.

The pressure to expand

  • 1890 Naval Act called for construction of more battleships, gunboats, torpedo boats, and cruisers

  • 1900 U.S. had one of the most powerful navies in the world.

Preserving american spirit

Preserving American Spirit

  • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, historian Frederick Jackson Turner, and young politician Theodore Roosevelt argued that a quest for empire might restore the countries pioneer spirit.

  • Lost due to closing of frontier.

The pressure to expand

  • Drew on doctrine of social Darwinism to justify takeover of new territories.

  • The civilizations produced by Anglo-Saxon people were superior to the societies they conquered.

  • Expansion not only this nation’s destiny but a noble pursuit.

Public opinion leans toward expansion

Public Opinion Leans Toward Expansion

  • Gradually public opinion warmed to the idea of expansion.

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