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Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 6 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning. Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 6 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3) General View on the Development of Architecture Schools Dr. Hazem Abu- Orf.

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Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 6 19 th Century Architecture (Part 3)

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Theories of architecture eaps4202 lecturer 6 19 th century architecture part 3

University of Palestine

Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning

Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning

Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202)

Lecturer 6

19th Century Architecture (Part 3)

General View on the Development of Architecture Schools

Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 24.03.2009


Theories of architecture emerging both in the 19 th century at the start of the 20 th century

Theories of Architecture emerging both in the 19th century & at the start of the 20th century

  • New Classicism ١- الكلاسیكیة الجدیدة

  • Romanticism ٢- الفن الرومانسي

  • Realism ٣- الفنیة الواقعیة

  • Impressionism ٤- الانطباعیة

  • Post Impressionism ٥- ما بعد الانطباعیة

  • Modern Art ٦- الفن الحدیث

    1Fauvism أ) الوحشیة

    2Expressionism ب) الفن التعبیري ألتأثيري

    3Cubism ج)الحركة التكعیبیة

    4Abstract Art د) الفن التجریدي

    5Dadism ھ) الدادیة

    6Cerialism و) السریالیة

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Neo classical architecture

Neo Classical Architecture

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Low level of development at the 19 th late century

Low level of development at the 19th late century

Reasons behind this:

  • The focus was only on the structural system & its development;

  • Architectural attitude was not able to fulfill the needs of various social classes;

  • There were at the time less distinguished Architecture school of thought;

  • The rapid development in technologies that was carefully used by the structural Engineers while architects at the time were oriented toward abstract work, not actually fitting in with the time demand; and

  • Socio-economic factors and instability

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


School of architecture of key importance

School of Architecture of Key Importance

1 STRUCTURAL RATIONALISM

2 ART NOUVEAU

3 CUBISM

4 MONUMANTALISM and/or EXPRESSIONISM

5 ABSTRACT ARCHITECTURE

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


1 structural rationalism

1 STRUCTURAL RATIONALISM

  • The style represents a complete rejection of previous traditions while adopting new forms of ornament that are considered as an expression of their own time.

  • Notably, the style is largely influenced by the French theorist Eugene Viollet- Le- Duc Who:

    • Proposed a new rational approach to architecture based on re-using Gothic principles of constructing ribbed vaults by only using iron material.

    • Iron should be accordingly used in an honest manner and left exposed rather than hiding it by the use of fake materials (as Chicago School did).

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


1 structural rationalism1

1 STRUCTURAL RATIONALISM

  • Viollet –Le – Duc Theory ( Cont. )

    • In architecture , there are two ways to be true:

      A) according to the program (fulfill exactly and simply the conditions imposed by basic needs- function); and

      B) according to the method of construction adopted (imply the materials in relation to both quality and properties).

    • Artistic questions of symmetry and apparent form are of secondary importance in the presence of the dominant principles.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


2 art nouveau antoni gaudi

2 ART NOUVEAU (Antoni Gaudi)

The traditional Catalan vault

Style adopted:

  • An attempt to go beyond traditional styles

  • The use of ornament in an exaggerative manner with new techniques

  • The style spread rapidly and vanished shortly after the first WW due to the over use of ornament

  • Structurally related to the great Catalan cathedrals ( Gothic style) and largely influenced by the theories of Viollet Le Duc

  • Used the traditional Catalan vault (is a type of low arch made of plain bricks that is often used to make a structural floor surface and traditionally constructed by laying bricks lengthwise over a wood form or "centering", making it a much gentler curve than has generally been produced by other methods of construction)

  • Transformed the raw materials into an assembly of powerful images ( away from the principles of Viollet Le Duc)

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


2 art nouveau antoni gaudi1

2 ART NOUVEAU (Antoni Gaudi)

Casa Mila – Barcelona

Floor plan of Casa Mila

Interior view

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


2 art nouveau antoni gaudi2

2 ART NOUVEAU (Antoni Gaudi)

Casa Mila – Barcelona

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


2 art nouveau antoni gaudi3

2 ART NOUVEAU (Antoni Gaudi)

Sagrada Familia Church

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


2 art nouveau antoni gaudi4

2 ART NOUVEAU (Antoni Gaudi)

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008

Fort Gate of Guell Park

Guell Park -Barcelona


2 art nouveau victor horta

2 ART NOUVEAU (Victor Horta)

Van Eetvelde Hotel

Hotel Tassel in Brussels, the first extensive use of iron in domestic architecture .

  • Van Eetveldel Hotel is a good example of Art Nouveau where Horta uses Iron material explicitly. The structural elements are of iron exposed rather than being hidden that can not be overseen as these elements are constructed until the roof..

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008

Horta House


2 art nouveau hector guimard

2 ART NOUVEAU (Hector Guimard)

Guimard completely applied Viollet –Le – Duc Theory

It represents a style of architecture towards being true. To do so, architecture must be the product of the soil where it exists and of the period which is in needs of it.

Guimard is regarded as the creator of metro style, the Gate of Paris Metro made of iron & glass.

Symphony Music Hall

Another architectural work counted for Guimard is the Symphony Music Hall

The Gate of Paris Metro

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


2 art nouveau charles rennie

2 ART NOUVEAU (Charles Rennie )

Refused to use iron material and instead used stone material with large openings .

The reason for this is Rennie believes that iron does not emphasize powerful expression as stone might do.

Charles Rennie Mackintosh

Glasgow School of Arts

Sought every effort to incorporate engines and up-to-date systems suitable for environmental control.

Glasgow School of Art ( the effect of form depends on contrasting plain wall and glazed surfaces while using local elements.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


3 cubism

3 Cubism

  • The style of architecture appeared in 19th century at the time of ART NOUVEAU. The referred to using pure geometrical forms: circle, rectangle, square, & etc

  • The style reveals the call for simple architecture and resists the exaggerative use of ornament in architecture hoping to achieve equality among various social classes.

  • The quality of an object can not be judged based on abstract terms only, but it should be evaluated on the basis of time, cost and technique required for manufacture ( social economy ).

  • Ornament & crime (Adofloos):

    • A waste of time.

    • A waste of health.

    • A waste of material.

Apartment Building 1911

Looshaus apartment building 1911 – Vienna

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


3 cubism1

3 Cubism

Principles of Cubism architecture:

  • Civilization & development is much associated with getting ride of ornaments;

  • Spaces have to be associated with relations and appropriateness when re-arranging them;

  • The focus is on the interior space that is separated by simple elements while simplifying the outside space;

  • Priority is given to the space through using cubic forms rather than wreaking it by using ornaments and unnecessary decoration; and

  • Beauty in architecture is achieved by scoring harmony between massiveness and openness, appropriate relation of various forms used and the treatment of both texture color surface.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


3 cubism adolf loos

3 Cubism (Adolf Loos)

Stenir House 1910

  • Features:

  • Colors are unified

  • Buildings are cubic in form and perpendicular angles

  • Flat roof indicating the cubic form of the building

  • Harmony achieved between massive & open

  • fine in texture

  • The buildings have no certain style. Rather they express the architect attitude

Villa Project

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


4 monumantalism and or expressionism

4 MONUMANTALISM and/or EXPRESSIONISM

  • The style means that artist or designers have to express their feelings the way they feel: architects accordingly design on the basis of the idea;

  • One branch of Expressionism is Symbolism: buildings express themselves and this is a naïve understanding of architecture leading to design a chose factory as chose form, a bakery as a bread form and etc;

  • The style primarily deals with the form regardless of function or structural system;

  • Form has to be unique on the cost of function & historical reference; &

  • Architecture is conceptualized in its symbolic orientation providing naïve understanding and less in-depth;

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


4 monumantalism and or expressionism1

4 MONUMANTALISM and/or EXPRESSIONISM

Petter Behrens

Turbine Factory 1908

Hans Poelzig

Auditorium, Berlin 1919

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


4 monumantalism and or expressionism2

4 MONUMANTALISM and/or EXPRESSIONISM

Eric Mendelssohn

Einstein Building

Sketches of Mendelssohn

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Abstract architecture

ABSTRACT ARCHITECTURE

Principles

  • Architecture is part of the environment surrounding it illustrated as art picture within that environment;

  • Design adopts harmony;

  • Simplicity is a key with a complete abstraction;

  • The basic idea is to start from the two dimensional elements and juxtapose them according to a new sense of interrelationship; and

  • The use of basic colors ( yellow for vertical, blue for horizontal and red ) while usually using the black color to separate between these three.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Abstract architecture1

ABSTRACT ARCHITECTURE

Rietveld Schroder

South-East Elevation

GF

North Elevation

South-West Elevation

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008

FF


Abstract architecture2

ABSTRACT ARCHITECTURE

Rietveld, Schroder House, 1824

Contrast in colors and their direction to achieve balance;

The design is mainly comprised of surfaces that are without ornament

The design largely adopts harmony regardless function considered as fine art;

The interior space is acting as large open space with its separating walls are movable depending on variation of needs.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


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