Methodology of Science and Scientific Work June 20, 2002 Prof. dr. Kemal Bakarsic

Methodology of Science and Scientific Work June 20, 2002 Prof. dr. Kemal Bakarsic PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Science sice B.. 2. Harold Lasswell 5W Model. WHO. WHOM. . . . How. Why. What. Science sice B.. 3. 5W Questions. Who adresant communication partner (near)What communication content, news, informationWhom adresat communication partner (far)How communication or message transfer modusWhy

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Methodology of Science and Scientific Work June 20, 2002 Prof. dr. Kemal Bakarsic

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1. Science sice B. 1 Methodology of Science and Scientific Work June 20, 2002 Prof. dr. Kemal Bakarsic No.1 Science since Babylon

2. Science sice B. 2 Harold Lasswell 5W Model

3. Science sice B. 3 5W Questions Who – adresant communication partner (near) What – communication content, news, information Whom – adresat communication partner (far) How – communication or message transfer modus Why – communicative intention

4. Science sice B. 4 Who (is speaking) Adresant, Communication partner, Person, LAD (Language Accessory Device), Machine . ANYONE who is communication partner ... Able or willing to speak ... Able to willing to communicate

5. Science sice B. 5 What (is talking about) Communication contents News, message, information… Any kind of a content that can be transmitted from one to another

6. Science sice B. 6 Whom (is speaking) Adresat communication partner Person, LAD, machine ... The other side of a communication chain ... Able to listen ... Able or willing to communicate

7. Science sice B. 7 How (we communicate) Certain pattern of message transition (e.i. Conversation, language, scripture, message, fax-machine, by phone line, SMS...) Certain technique of communication transfer of content (conversation, dialog, literature, Internet, TV, radio programs ...) Certain communicative behavior

8. Science sice B. 8 Why (we communicate) Basic communication intention There is no such thing as non intentional communication Communication mush has its purpose, reason (reason d`etre) This element belongs to the communication, but its nature does not have to be communication Communication reason could be previously finished act of communication

9. Science sice B. 9 What is the same in the communication Code, code structure, code language Semiotical system that is the natural environment of those actors which communicate Actors a ‘sunked’ into semiotic system Smallest code system is TRAFFIC CONTROL LIGHTS (SEMAPHOR) only 3 signs (red, yellow and green) only 6 combination rules Most complex code structure is LANGUAGE

10. Science sice B. 10 Game no. 1 Bosnian word KATEDRALA K – adjective KA – adjective KAT – floor KATE – abbreviated female name (Katarina) KATED – * no meaning KATEDR – * no meaning KATEDRA – special kind of table or school department KATEDRAL – in Ž.Altarca lyrics “Tamo daleko u zatišju” (Indexi 1968) meaning ‘singer’ “kada katedral sa visokog tornja stane i nadjaca oluju” KATEDRALA – type of sacral building

11. Science sice B. 11 Game no 2. English word CATHEDRAL C – letter capital ‘c’ CA – abbreviation for Canada CAT – domestic animal CATH – * no meaning CATHE – * no meaning CATHED – * no meaning CATHEDR – * no meaning CATHEDRA – department or part of a school CATHEDRAL – type of sacral building

12. Science sice B. 12 Communicology (communication Science) is (at least) three-folded Semilogy – science on signs and sign systems Semantics – science on the meaning or linguistic meaning Hermeneutics – (science) or the skill of understanding – interpretation

13. Science sice B. 13 Communicology is multidisciplinary science: Linguistics Informatcs, Information Science Philosophy of communication Philosophy of language Sociology, sociology of language …

14. Science sice B. 14 The Ideal Model of communication is a dialog Communication partners recognize one another Partners uses the same system of the communication Genuinely speak to the other and listen the the other Have a control over the communication an negotiation ...

15. Science sice B. 15 Dialog (cont.) Partners listen while they talk (self control feed back) Partners do not speak while listening to another Exchange and understand the content of the communication Change their own horizon, horizon of expectations and prejudices

16. Science sice B. 16 The End of the Dialog is SILENCE But until reaching the silence, conversation and talk is on, if there is anything need or left to say.

17. Science sice B. 17 Three-folded communication problem Technical problem – is a message technically correct (right), signal clear so that the entropy can be bypassed or rejected Semantical problem – will the message be correctly decoded and understand at a receiving point Problem of the affectivity – will this communication act produce (provoke) desirable and intentional result or effect

18. Science sice B. 18 The Reality of Communication All five elements of the communication must be presented (answered) These element we feel like ‘organic’ unity of communication Three-folded problem is always ‘on’ The Horizon is always shifted or changed

19. Science sice B. 19 Communication Puzzle In some occasions it is impossible to make a distinction between The Message (what) from partner (whom) Words (what) from the way one talk (how) Intention (why) from words (what) The Way (how) from the Reason (why) ...

20. Science sice B. 20 The Blue Gitar Wallace Stevens That say “You play upon the Blue Gitar But you don’t sing things As they realy are” And a Man replay “Different Things Are When they are played upon the Blue Gitar”

21. Science sice B. 21 Marshall McLuhan noticed that: Medium is a Reality (or a part of reality) that is a physical (technical) carrier of the communication; Paper is a medium of a written message, Picture on the screen – of a television Sound – of a music

22. Science sice B. 22 Medium is a Message The way (pattern or modus) on which the carrier transmits a message is at the same time a true character of a message itself

23. Science sice B. 23 Medium is the Message (cont.) It is nonsense to: Make gestures to a blind person or To speak to a deaf person (Formal – technical communication conditions are partly present or not present at all)

24. Science sice B. 24 Medium is the Message (cont.) It is not recommended or ‘communicatively effective’ to say “I love you” using: Yellow pages advertisement Official Gazette announcements or Using your best friend as a messenger

25. Science sice B. 25 Medium is the Message (cont.) Reality is a mixture or symbiotic pattern of the way the massage should be transmitted (5W HOW) and the massage content itself (5W WHAT) Notion of a communication is therefore much wider and includes the following phenomena such as: style, fashion, make-up, food, car industry, pop culture, mass culture, truism, sub-culture, pop music, politics and sex.

26. Science sice B. 26 Mass media communication Special form of communication in a pattern (one 2 many) Also specific – there is no direct feed back control of communication Feed back is non typical or rudimental issue Feed back can be used or misused using other criteria or tools Vox populi – Phone call into on the air radio program You Asked for It – Viewers letters read on TV) Media 4 Media – Friday press TV announcements or Friday TV Guides

27. Science sice B. 27 Everything IS communication The World is a GLOBAL VILLAGE of the electronic interdependence Notion VILLAGE (i.e. hacienda) includes, houses, people living, gardens, fields, water, market square, church, graveyard, village walls … … it also includes a satellite dish a communication device to the world behind village borders (walls)

28. Science sice B. 28 And what is Internet ?????

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