Krithi ramamritham iit bombay
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ICT for empowering Emerging Regions. Krithi Ramamritham IIT Bombay. The Big Question. How do we give the rural population the same access to Information that you and I take for granted?. "How to face the challenges in serving under-served segments of the population

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Krithi ramamritham iit bombay

ICT

for empowering

Emerging Regions

Krithi Ramamritham IIT Bombay

Developmental Informatics Lab


The big question

The Big Question

How do we give

the rural population

the same access to

Information that

you and I take

for granted?

"How to face the challenges in serving

under-served segments of the population

through science & technology based solutions”

Developmental Informatics Lab


Knowledge revolution

Knowledge Revolution

Limited to less than 15% population of the world.

  • Most research and products are for people in

    highly developed countries.

    Touches less than 2% of population

    in developing countries.

Developmental Informatics Lab


Ict for socio economic development has come of age

ICT for Socio-Economic Development-- has come of age

Research in Indian academia/industry labs

  • IITs - Madras, KGP, Kanpur,….

  • IIITs – Hyderabad, Bangalore,…

  • MSRI, Intel, Nokia, Motorola, TCS,….

    Publication avenues

  • ICTD, WWW DR track, CHI, (VLDB),…

  • journals

    Lots of challenging issues….

Developmental Informatics Lab


Village kiosk services

Internet service provider

Cable TV provider

Basic telephony (VoIP)

E-governance

Landrecords

Price info (mandi bhav)

Digital photography

Astrology (jyotish kendra)

Village kioskservices

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Developmental Informatics Lab


Internet a repository of knowledge

Internet –a repository of knowledge?

Perhaps, but divides exist…

  • The Connectivity Divide

    • No connectivity

    • Low bandwidth connectivity

    • Intermittent connectivity

Developmental Informatics Lab


Communication technologies

Communication Technologies

  • DialUP

  • VSATs

  • Wired

  • Wireless 802.11

  • Cable Modem

  • DSL

  • Cell Phones

  • WiMaX

Developmental Informatics Lab


Krithi ramamritham iit bombay

Developmental Informatics Lab


Cordect

corDECT

  • corDect is a wireless access system developed by IIT,Madras , Midas Communication Technologies, and Analog Communications , USA.

  • It provides voice telephony services and 35/70 kbps internet services with a wireless interface that supports a 10km line of sight connectivity.

Developmental Informatics Lab


Daknet

DakNet

ad hoc network that uses wireless technology and existing communications and transportation infrastructure to distribute digital connectivity.

Developmental Informatics Lab


Internet a repository of knowledge1

Internet –a repository of knowledge?

Perhaps, but divides exist…

  • The Connectivity Divide

    • No connectivity

    • Low bandwidth connectivity

    • Intermittent connectivity

  • The Content Divide

    • No relevant content

    • Not accessible/useful

      • to the semi/illiterate population

Language divide

Interface divide

Usability divide

Developmental Informatics Lab


How does web content come into being

How does Web Content come into being?

  • Individuals / institutions / governments

    place content on the Web

    • Web pages

    • Blogs

  • Collaborative content creation

    • Wiki

    • Discussion (Q&A) fora

  • Relevant?

  • Topical?

  • Localized?

  • Personalized?

Developmental Informatics Lab


Krithi ramamritham iit bombay

AQUAEcosystem

Initially,

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Baramati

(an agri-extension center)

Initially,

kiosks operated by

Vigyan Ashram, Pabal village

Developmental Informatics Lab


Village kiosk services1

Developmental Informatics Lab (DIL)

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Village kiosk services

Field Observations and Studies

are fed back into

AQUA research & development

AQUA--> aAQUA

Developmental Informatics Lab


Krithi ramamritham iit bombay

Developmental Informatics Lab


Images from aaqua

Images from aAQUA

Developmental Informatics Lab


Users of aaqua

Users of aAQUA

  • questions from half the districts in India

  • questions on farming, animal husbandry, employment (BPO), vocational education,…

Developmental Informatics Lab


Challenges

Challenges…

  • How can we scale, if each question needs to be answered by an expert?

  • How can we make aAQUA usable for naïve users?

  • How can we ensure availability in spite of resource constraints (e.g., connectivity problems)?

Developmental Informatics Lab


How to improve

How to improve…

  • Scalability

    • After several seasons, questions repeat

      => archive previous Q&A

      => search archive for answer

    • Data integration & consolidation

    • Multilingual semantics-driven search

      • “insurers cheating farmers” vs.

        “farmers cheating insurers”

  • Usability

  • Availability

Developmental Informatics Lab


Consolidating content e library

Consolidating Content: e-Library

  • Photos of crop pests and diseases lead to solutions

  • -- without going to experts

collection of edited aAQUA Q&A in English, Hindi and Marathi

  • recommendations from

  • Agri-Universities and KVKs

Developmental Informatics Lab


Multi lingual search over archive

Multi Lingual Search over archive

search

Query in Hindi

English Document

Marathi Document

Result in Hindi

English Document

E-library

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

Developmental Informatics Lab


How to improve1

How to improve…

  • Scalability

    • Exploit repetition of questions

      => consolidate, archive previous Q&A

      => Support Multilingual semantics-based search of archive

  • Usability

    • Better interfaces, better I/O devices

      => iconic, easy to visualize, easy to use

  • Availability

Developmental Informatics Lab


Enhancing usability

Enhancing Usability

  • Keyboard: easy input in Devanagari

  • Use of local language

  • Organizing content by category and keywords

  • Multimediasupport, image zoom

Developmental Informatics Lab


Krithi ramamritham iit bombay

Bhav Puchiye – Ask for the price

Most such interfaces are text-based

Interface for Bhav Puchiye

Developmental Informatics Lab


Krithi ramamritham iit bombay

Bhav Puchiye

DEMO

Developmental Informatics Lab


User interest needs to be sustained

User Interest needs to be sustained

  • If a farmer comes to a kiosk to ask a question and is told

    “network is down, come back later”

  • HE WILL NEVER COME BACK

Developmental Informatics Lab


How to improve2

How to improve…

  • Scalability

  • Usability

  • Availability

    • Exploit the “read-mostly” situation

    • Exploit the “delay-tolerance” aspect of Q&As

      => Make off-line access the default

    • Exploit spread of Cell phones

Developmental Informatics Lab


Dealing with connectivity constraints

Dealing with connectivity constraints

  • Lighter pages delivered

  • Mirror sites that synchronize

  • Web Caching and query caching

  • Prefetching

    • through prediction of future needs and update times

Developmental Informatics Lab


Improving availability offline access

Improving Availability: Offline Access

  • Standalone application employing

    store-and-forward protocols

    • Offline Search and Posting, Authentication.

    • Complete aAQUA can be navigated and searched in disconnected mode.

    • Offline post also possible.

  • Fast searching and browsing experience

  • Delta of updates transferred between client and server

  • Heterogeneous database synchronization

Developmental Informatics Lab


Offline aaqua

"Best Poster" at WWW 2007: International Conference on the World Wide Web, Banff, Canada.

Repository

Light Db

Offline aAQUA

Query optimization

for handhelds

with varying memory sizes

aAQUA on internet

Store threads

Indexing

engine

Build index

Post messages and fetch new or updated threads

Client

Application

Read threads

Search

Light Web Server

(lighttpd)

Read

Write

Update database

for new threads

Browser

Developmental Informatics Lab


Poll on aaqua on use of mobile phones

Poll on aAQUA -- on use of mobile phones

Developmental Informatics Lab


Krithi ramamritham iit bombay

SMS Question & Answer

Developmental Informatics Lab


Popular sms based apps

Popular SMS based apps

  • Weather (push or pull)

  • Sports/Entertainment services

  • Transportation services

  • News

  • Innovative personal services:

    e.g., Market Price information

    for agricultural goods

  • Personal services: e.g., Using SMS to inform customers in a quasi-real time when the money is transferred to their families, booking movie tickets etc.

  • GIS based content delivery services

  • Weather / temperature sensing capabilities

    (some high-end phones do have temp sensors)

Developmental Informatics Lab


Aaqua

aAqua Server

Internet

HTTP

Crop

Doctor

aAqua

Bhav

Puchiye

SMS

Keyword

Browser

Mobile

network

Crop

Recommendation

aAqua

Mobile

Gateway

aAqua

Offline

aAQUA

Developmental Informatics Lab


Enabling technologies

Enabling technologies

  • Internet crawling, searching, browsing, indexing of multilingual data on the Internet.

  • Data exploration on Heterogenous Data Sources.

  • Improving the performance of information extraction/caching/dissemination algorithms for resource constrained environments.

  • Support for building Databases on handhelds (e.g., Simputer, a low cost hand held developed in India).


Status and plans

Status and Plans

  • Questions from half the districts of India

  • KVK Baramati – primary expert group

    Scale-up

  • ICAR via NAIP

    • Agri Universities

      • Pant Nagar

      • Dharwad

    • KVKs

  • Maharashtra ArgiNet

    Spin-off

  • Agrocom – operating the

    Akashdoot weather station network

Developmental Informatics Lab


Preventive agri medicine climate sensors for crop disease forecasts

Preventive Agri-Medicine:Climate sensors for crop disease forecasts

wind speed

wind direction

air temperature

relative humidity

solar radiation

evaporation rate

leaf wetness

Developmental Informatics Lab


Summary

Summary

  • aAQUA takes Agri-extension services to people wherever they are

    • New ways of providing expert help to redress

      farmer problems in a timely fashion

  • Users formulate questions in a natural manner

  • Internet + Mobile phones – prices, aAQUA posts & feeds – push + pull

  • Incorporating innovations from research

    • Query processing and caching

    • Seamless offline access

    • Cross-lingual archive and retrieval

    • Human-computer Interactions

    • Heterogeneous Data Integration

      + semantics driven multilingual search

Developmental Informatics Lab


Ict for socio economic development has come of age1

ICT for Socio-Economic Development-- has come of age

Research in Indian academia/industry labs

  • IITs - Madras, KGP, Kanpur,….

  • IIITs – Hyderabad, Bangalore,…

  • MSRI, Intel, Nokia, Motorola, TCS,….

    Publication avenues

  • ICTD, WWW DR track, CHI, (VLDB),…

  • journals

    Lots of challenging issues….

Developmental Informatics Lab


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