Chemistry of life
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Chemistry of Life. I. Atoms A. 2 parts (sub-atomic) 1. nucleus 2. shell (s) = cloud (s) B. Periodic table of elements C. Definitions 1. elements 2. compounds 3. isotopes 4. ions II. Molecules A. Molecular bonds B. Hydrogen bonds III. Origins IV. Water.

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Chemistry of Life

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Chemistry of life

Chemistry of Life

I. Atoms

A. 2 parts (sub-atomic)

1. nucleus

2. shell (s) = cloud (s)

B. Periodic table of elements

C. Definitions

1. elements

2. compounds

3. isotopes

4. ions

II. Molecules

A. Molecular bonds

B. Hydrogen bonds

III. Origins

IV. Water


Chemical composition of human body

Chemical Composition of Human Body


I atoms

I. Atoms

A. 2 parts (sub-atomic)

1. nucleus

2. shell (s) = cloud (s)

e-

e-

e-

Inner shell fills first with a maximum of 2

e-

p+

no

e-

e-

Second shell fills next with a max of 8

e-

e-

e-

p+ = protons

e-

no = neutrons

Third shell next with a max of 8 (sort of)

e- = electrons

An atom’s raison d’etre is to fill its outer most shell.


I atoms1

I. Atoms


I atoms2

I. Atoms


I atoms3

I. Atoms

Neutral atom


Chemistry of life

Oxygen has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic weight of 16.0. How many electrons does oxygen need to fill it’s outer shell?

a. 1c. 3e. 6

b. 2d. 4


Chemistry of life

  • The reactivity of atoms is largely due to the

    • number of protons in the nucleus

    • ionic number

    • polarity of the bonds

    • electrons in the outer shell

    • number of neutrons in the nucleus


Carbon atom

Carbon Atom


B periodic table of elements

B. Periodic table of elements


C definitions

C. Definitions

  • Elements

  • Compounds

  • Ions

    • Negative ions

    • Positive ions

H2O

Emergent property

NaCl

Na+

+ Cl-

H+


C definitions1

C. Definitions

  • Isotopes

Radioactive

Half-life

Carbon 14 dating


Chemistry of life

If an atom has 5 protons, 6 neutrons, and 7 electrons, its charge will be

a. neutral

b. positive 2

c. negative 2

d. positive 1

e. negative 1


Ii molecules

II. Molecules

Linus Pauling

A. Molecular bonds1. covalent bondsa. number of bonds and molecular stabilityb. polar and nonpolar covalent bonds


Representing molecules

Representing molecules


Ii molecules1

II. Molecules

b. Polar and nonpolar covalent bonds

Oxygen is electronegative


Ii molecules2

II. Molecules

2. Ionic bonds

NaCl

Na+ + Cl-

oxidized

reduced

(redox)

Oxidation-reduction Rx


Ii molecules3

II. Molecules

B. Hydrogen bonds

Dissolve


Liquid solid gas

Liquid, solid, gas


Ii molecules4

II. Molecules

B. Hydrogen bonds


Chemistry of life

What is the fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding?

A)Covalent bonding involves only the outer electron shell; ionic bonding also

involves the next inner electron shell.

B)Covalent bonds form between atoms of the same element; ionic bonds,

between atoms of different elements.

C)In a covalent bond, the partners have identical electronegativity; in an

ionic bond, one of them is more electronegative.

D)In a covalent bond, the partners share a pair of electrons; in an ionic

bond, one partner captures an electron from the other.

E)In covalent bonding, both partners end up with filled outer electron

shells; in ionic bonding, one partner does and the other does not.


Chemistry of life

Under what conditions do atoms interact with other atoms to create

covalent bonds?

a. when their electonegativies are significantly different

b. when their charges are opposite

c. when one has an inner shell unfilled and the other has an outer

shell unfilled

d. when both atoms have spaces in their outer shells that need

to be filled


Iii origins

III. Origins

Big bang!


Iv water

IV. Water

  • Importance to life

  • Properties of water important to life

    • High capacity to absorb heat

    • Cohesion and adhesion

    • Universal solvent

      • Solute, solvent, solution

      • Hydrophilic, hydrophobic

  • Acid/ base chemistry

    • Acid

    • Base

    • pH (- log [H+] )

    • Buffers


Chemistry of life

The oxygen atom of a water molecule

A)is more positively charged than the hydrogen atoms.

B)is electrically neutral.

C)is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms.

D)is attracted to the negatively charged atoms of other

molecules.

E)attracts electrons less strongly than the hydrogen atoms.


1 high capacity to absorb heat

1. High capacity to absorb heat

evaporation

Water is a buffer to temperature change

Temperature homeostasis


2 cohesion and adhesion

2. Cohesion and adhesion


3 universal solvent

3. Universal solvent

a. Solute, solvent, solution

b. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic


B acid base chemistry

B. Acid/ base chemistry

1. Acid

2. Base

3. pH (- log [H+] )

4. Buffers

[H+] > [OH-]

Acid

[OH-] > [H+]

HOH

H+ + OH-

Base

hydroxyl

Neutral

[H+] = [OH-]

Most common physiological buffer:

HCO3-

bicarbonate

Absorbs

H+

up

down

low

high

high


Chemistry of life

You are outside on a very cold day and take your temperature. It is 37C.

This is because

a. water molecules adhere together and prevent temperature

change

b. water has a high capacity to absorb heat without changing

temperature

c. heat is a solute that dissolves in water

d. heat changes the pH of blood causing it to cool


Chemistry of life

Solution A has a pH of 2.0 and solution B has a pH of 4.0. Which of the

following is the difference between the two solutions?

a. Solution A has twice as much hydrogen ion concentration as B

b. Solution B has twice as much hydrogen ion concentration as A

c. Solution A has 100 times as much hydrogen ion concentration as B

d. Solution B has 100 times as much hydrogen ion concentration as A


Challenge question treeline

Challenge question: treeline

Cascades: 7,000 feet

Rocky mountains: 10,000 feet


The end

The end


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