Microworlds

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Table of Contents. Observing a pennyPeanut BabiesFabric ObservationsLearning about LensesLooking through Lenses*Learning to Use the Microscope*Field of View. Mystery SpecimenPlant and animals cells*Onion Activity*VolvoxBlepharismaVinegar EelsHay Infusions. Observing A Penny. BEFORE

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Microworlds

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1. Microworlds Christi Cahoon Activity by Activity

2. Table of Contents Observing a penny Peanut Babies Fabric Observations Learning about Lenses Looking through Lenses* Learning to Use the Microscope* Field of View Mystery Specimen Plant and animals cells* Onion Activity* Volvox Blepharisma Vinegar Eels Hay Infusions

3. Observing A Penny BEFORE: Heads Tails O O After one minute: Heads Tails O O

4. Observing A Penny QUESTION: What could we do to help us see the details of the penny better? PREDICT/HYPOTHESIS: To help us see the details of the penny better, we could… MATERIALS: penny, hand lens, journal PLAN: 1. Use hand lens to observe the penny. 2. Draw a magnified picture of the penny.

5. Observing A Penny DATA: heads tails O O CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

6. Observing a Penny, Vocabulary Vocabulary - add these terms to the glossary in the back of your lab notebook Observation - the gathering of information. Magnify - To enlarge in fact or in appearance. Illustration - An example or instance that helps make something clear Abrasive - A substance for smoothing Image - A likeness or imitation of a person or thing Eroded - To diminish or destroy

7. Observing A Penny, Content/Inquiry What are some characteristics found on a penny that you would find on other coins? Date, faces, buildings, “In God We Trust”, E-Pluribus Unum What does E-Pluribus Unum mean, and what language is it? “One from Many” Latin Why did you use the magnifying glass on the penny? To see small items, look for details How does the smaller magnifier differ from the larger magnifier? The smaller one magnifies more detail, than the larger one

8. Communicating Your Observations QUESTION: How can we use our sense of sight to become a better scientist? PREDICT/HYPOTHESIS: Using our sense of sight, we will become better scientists by… MATERIALS: journal, screen wire, burlap, yarn, pencil shavings

9. Communicating Your Observations PLAN: 1. Use the hand lens to observe the yarn, burlap, screen wire and pencil shavings. 2. Draw a magnified picture of each object. 3. List the observable properties of each object.

10. Communicating Your Observations DATA: Pencil shavings Burlap O O Screen wire Yarn O O

11. Communicating Your Observations CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

12. Communicating Your Observations, Vocabulary Manipulate – To manage or use skillfully Texture – The visual surface characteristics and appearance of something Variations – Extent of change or difference Enlarge – Make or grow large Welded – To unite by heating or pushing Frayed – Worn ragged

13. Communicating Your Observations, Content/Inquiry What happened to the materials when they were manipulated? Able to make an accurate observation of the item not an inference. Why is it important to just draw a small area? The more details you will observe. Why did you see hairs on the burlap and yarn? Burlap and yarn are made out of tiny hairs woven together. Which would be more similar to denim – the screen or the burlap? Burlap What variations did you observe? Burlap is woven tighter and is woven in an up and down pattern. The screen wire is also woven with the same pattern but not as tight. The yarn is twisted in a circular motion, not very tight. How many pieces of threads are woven together to make a piece of yarn? 3 small strings inter-twined

14. Learning about Lenses QUESTION: What properties allow a lens to magnify? PREDICT/HYPOTHESIS: Lenses are able to magnify because… MATERIALS: water bottle, wax paper, cube, sphere, cylinder, newspaper PLAN: 1. Choose one word on the newspaper and underline the word. 2. Draw the way the word appears when viewed under each object. (cube, sphere (held two ways), cylinder, wax paper, wax paper with a drop of water)

15. Learning About Lenses DATA: cube sphere cylinder #1 cylinder #2 wax paper wax paper with a water drop O O O O O O CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

16. Learning About Lenses, Vocabulary Cylinder – Solid figure formed by turning a rectangle about one side as an axis Sphere – A globed shaped body Curvature – The act of curving or being curved Rounded – Curving or round in shape Cube – A solid having six equal square sides Transparent – Clear enough to be seen through

17. Looking Through Lenses QUESTION: How will printed word look through a concave lens? HYPOTHESIS: Through a concave lens, printed word will look… MATERIALS: newspaper, concave lens, prism, flexible mirror DATA: prism concave lens flexible mirror O O O

18. Looking Through Lenses CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

19. Looking Through Lenses, Vocabulary Translucent – Not transparent but clear enough to allow light to pass through Opaque – Not letting light in Reflective – Ability to reflect

20. Looking Through Lenses, Content/Inquiry Why doesn’t a flat lenses magnify? The light rays are not bent on a flat lenses Do items magnify if they are rounded? Yes, for example: a clear marble, fish bowl, glass of water Why do you think the curved shapes magnify? The light going through the objects is curved Why are the words upside down when you hold the magnifier up? The magnifier, object and the eye invert the object thus tricking the brain in thinking it is upside down Why did the cylinder magnify the word on it’s side, but not vertically? The side is curved thus magnifying, holding the cylinder vertically it has no curves, it is flat

21. Looking Through Lenses, Content/Inquiry Can you see through opaque lens? No What does an opaque marble look like? Very solid, in color, usually a very dark color What’s the difference between translucent and transparent? Translucent allows some light to pass through, transparent allows all the light to pass through Does deeper water magnify more? No, the water doesn’t magnify, the curved object it is in does the magnifying. The water adds the depth

22. Learning to Use the Microscope QUESTION: What do you know about microscopes? PREDICT/HYPOTHESIS: Microscopes . . . MATERIALS: one microscope, one piece of microfiche, 1 journal PLAN: 1. Use the microscope to view the microfiche. 2. Write about your observations.

23. Learning to Use the Microscope DATA: 1. At one time microscope were called _______________. 2. Who invented the microscope? 3. Was Leeuwenhoek’s store ever opened? Why? 4. What could Leeuwenhoek see with his simple microscope? 5. What is written on the microfiche in your hand?

24. Learning to Use the Microscope CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

25. Learning to Use the Microscope, Vocabulary Microscope – An optical instrument that uses lens to produce magnified images of objects too small to be seen by the unaided eye

26. Learning to Use the Microscope, Content\Inquiry Questions Who invented the microscope? Anton Leeuwenhoek, first person to make and use Why was Leeuwenhoek’s store never opened? Leeuwenhoek spent his time trying to create pieces of glass that would help him see small things. What could Leeuwenhoek see with his simple microscope? One celled plants and animals, bacteria, blood of mammals

27. Practicing with the Microscope QUESTION: How will newsprint look under the microscope? How will glossy magazine look under the microscope? PREDICT/HYPOTHESIS: The newsprint will look . . . The glossy magazine will look. . . MATERIALS: microscope, journal, newspaper (colored & black and white), magazine (colored & black and white), screen wire

28. Practicing with the Microscope PLAN: Select a strip of black and white newspaper from the supply box. Place a piece of screen wire over the print. Look at it under the microscope, focus on one square from the screen wire, and draw your observations. Select a strip of colored newspaper from the supply box. Look at it under the microscope and draw your observations. Repeat steps 1 – 4 with the magazine strips.

29. Practicing with the Microscope DATA: NP – Black & White NP – Color O O Mag. – black & white Mag. – color O O

30. Practicing with the Microscope CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

31. Preparing Slides QUESTION: How can I view objects of different dimensions under a microscope? PREDICT/HYPOTHESIS: I can view objects of different dimensions under a microscope by. . . MATERIALS: journal, microscope, slides, well slide, coverslip, poppy seeds, feather, sponge, fish scales

32. Preparing Slides PLAN: 1.Use a well-slide or a wet-mount slide to view the following objects: fish scales, sponge, feather, poppy seeds. 2.Draw your observations. DATA: fish scales feather O O sponge poppy seeds O O

33. Preparing Slides CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

34. Preparing Slides, Vocabulary Wet – mount slides – Slides that requires a drop of water. Well slide – Also known as a depression slide; this type of slide provides a reservoir with more depth for holding specimens.

35. What is it? QUESTION: What are the mystery specimens? HYPOTHESIS: I predict that each specimen is. . . 1. 2. 3. 4. MATERIALS: four mystery items(A-D), microscope, journal, well slide, coverslip

36. What is it? PLAN: Prepare a well slide with specimen A. Observe the specimen under the microscope. Draw your observations and list the observable properties. Repeat steps 1-3 with the remaining three specimens.

37. What is it? DATA: 1. Observable Properties: 2. Observable Properties: O O Result: ____________ Result: ____________ 3. Observable Properties: 4. Observable Properties: O O Result: ____________ Result: ____________

38. What is it? CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

39. Robert Hooke QUESTION: Who is Robert Hooke? PREDICT/HYPOTHESIS: Robert Hooke is. . . MATERIALS: journal, student investigations book p.35, pencil PLAN: 1. Read selection from student investigation book. 2. Answer questions in a complete sentence in DATA section of journal.

40. Robert Hooke DATA: 1. Before Hooke became a scientist he wanted to be a _________. painter 2. While Leeuwenhoek was busy building microscopes and looking at a great variety of microbes in his little shop in the Netherlands, what was Hooke busy doing at this time? Hooke was doing the somewhat the same thing in England. 3. What is a major differences between Hooke and Leeuwenhoek? Hooke drew what he saw through his microscope.

41. Robert Hooke DATA: (con’t) 4. What tool did Hooke invented while he was experimenting? Hooke invented the barometer. 5. Name at least two items that Hooke drew in detail using his simple and compound microscopes? Hooke drew insects and their parts, the point of a needle, the edge of a razor, insects in rainwater (microbes), snow crystals, and pieces of cork.

42. Robert Hooke CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

43. Onion Experiment QUESTION: How does an onion look on the inside? PREDICTION/HYPOTHESIS: The inside of an onion looks like. . . (use words, but you may also draw a picture) MATERIALS: onion, forceps, microscope, wet-slide, journal

44. Onion Experiment PLAN: 1. Observe the outside of the onion and describe its exterior. 2. Make two different sketches at each different level of observation. The first sketch will record what you predict, the second will record what you actually observe. 3. Prepare a wet-mount slide of the onion skin to look at under the microscope.

45. Onion Experiment DATA: PREDICT: Sketch what you think you would see if you cut an onion lengthwise from the leaf end to the root end. PREDICT: Next sketch what you think you would see if you cut one of your onion slices in half across the roundest parts. OBSERVE: Sketch what you see when the onion is sliced lengthwise. OBSERVE: Now sketch what you see when the onion is cut through the roundest part.

46. Onion Experiment PREDICT: What do you think the onion will look like under the microscope? O OBSERVE: Now sketch what you see under the microscope. O

47. Onion Experiment CONCLUSION: In complete sentences, show me what you learned today. NEW QUESTION: Write one or two questions that you have now.

48. Onion Experiment, Content Inquiry Questions What do cells under a microscope look like? “building blocks of all living things” Which scientists gave cells their name because they reminded him of a small, boxlike, prison or cell? Robert Hooke

49. Volvox QUESTION: What is a Volvox? Draw what you see under the microscope:

50. Volvox, Vocabulary Volvox – (green algae) member of a large group of organisms Flagella – Whiplike tails which work together to propel the colony through the water.

51. Blepharisma QUESTION: What is Blepharisma? Draw what you see under the microscope.

52. Blepharisma, Vocabulary Blepharisma – Single-celled, pear-shaped creature about 160 micrometers in length. Cilia – Short, hairlike extensions that cover their entire body. Binary fission – Dividing itself in half, produces two equal twins Microbe – A microorganism

53. Volvox and Blepharisma, Content\Inquiry Questions Could you estimate how many different individuals were on your slide? How could you tell them apart? Relative size, brightness of color, differences in shape. How would you describe the motion of this microbe? Swimming, darting, sometimes rotating

54. Vinegar Eels QUESTION: What are Vinegar Eels? Draw what you see under the microscope.

55. Vinegar Eels, Vocabulary Vinegar eel – A harmless roundworm, body is nearly transparent Unpasteurized vinegar – A very acid environment

56. Vinegar Eels, Content\Inquiry Questions Describe the vinegar eels. Which of the strategies for slowing them down did you try? What worked best for you? How did you feel observing the vinegar eels? Why was it an important activity?

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