References and citations explained. Learning outcomes. You will know why correct referencing is essential You will know what citations are and when and how to cite in the text You will be able to reference some key sources of information including books, journal articles and websites
It is a requirement of your department/school
Allows others to easily find your sources
–give as much information as you can
Puts your current work into context
Helps you re-trace your reading in the future
Provides supporting evidence for facts, opinions, data, approaches taken
Poor information sources and poor referencing loses marks
Gives your work academic credibility
Shows the breadth of your reading
Appears in the text of your essay, wherever you use a quote or incorporate an idea you have picked up from another source
Appears at the end of your essay or chapter, or sometimes at the bottom of each page, and gives full details of the source of your information
A list at the end of a chapter or essay giving full details of sources cited within the essay
A list at the end of your essay which gives the full details of all sources which you have read even if they are not referred to within the text
In the Harvard style, you usually include the author's surname and the date of publication in brackets (Jones 2005). For each citation there should be a full reference at the end of your work, giving the full details of the source.
JONES, A. 2005. References and citations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In the Numeric style, the citation is a number that refers the reader to a corresponding reference in your reference list. The first source cited in your work is allocated number 1; the second is allocated number 2, and so on.
1. JONES, A. References and citations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
2. ADAMS, B. Referencing in academic work. London: Sage publications, 2008.
Tip 1: To cite a source that you have read in another source:
Harvard: (Matthews 1998, cited in Brown 2001 p.17).
Numeric: Matthews (5 p.17) cites Brown, who emphasises...
Tip 2: If you are citing items from the same author in the same year:
Harvard: They should be distinguished by adding a lower-case letter after the year .
Numeric: This isn’t a problem as the source would just be allocated another number
Tip 3: If there is no author:
Harvard: (Anon 2011)
Numeric: Use Anon in your reference list
Tip 4: If there is no date:
Harvard: In-text citation: (Jones no date) Bibliography: [no date]
Numeric: In your reference list write [no date] where the year would normally appear
For comparison purposes, here is an example of a book referenced using the 2 methods:HarvardJONES, S. and F. BROWN. 1998. Citing and referencing published material. 3rd ed. London: British Institution.NumericJONES, S. and F. BROWN. Citing and referencing published material. 3rd ed. London: British Institution, 1998.
When you are reading for an assignment you may use a whole range of sources:
Now we will practise writing references for several of these sources
When listing your references you can either include:
BELZ, F., and B. SCHMIDT-RIEDIGER. 2010. Marketing strategies in the age of sustainable development: Evidence from the food industry. Business Strategy and the Environment 19(7)
BRENKERT, G. 2008. Marketing ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing
CAPON, N. 2007. The marketing mavens. New York: Crown Business