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The Implementation Process: Managing People. William Tibben SITACS University of Wollongong. October 2002. Overview. What kind of skills do we require of the manager during implementation ? The art of Conflict Management Coping with diversity of people and situations.

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The implementation process managing people

The Implementation Process: Managing People

William Tibben

SITACS

University of Wollongong. October 2002


Overview
Overview

  • What kind of skills do we require of the manager during implementation?

  • The art of Conflict Management

  • Coping with diversity of people and situations


Essential question 1 courtesy of commworks 2001
Essential Question 1.(Courtesy of Commworks, 2001)

  • What is the timeline for networkdeployment?


Essential question 2 does your budget support the timeline
Essential Question 2 - Does your budget support the timeline?

Work package cost estimate

Gray & Larson, 2000, Figure 3-8


Essential question 2 does your budget support the timeline1

$6,000

5,000

4,000

Costs

3,000

2,000

Committed

Actual cost

1,000

Scheduled budget

Project Duration

Essential Question 2 - Does your budget support the timeline?

Gray & Larson, 2000, Figure 3-9


Essential question 3 have you accounted for all tasks required to deploy the network

Complete project

1

Project

Major deliverables

2

Deliverable

Supporting deliverables

Subdeliverable

3

Lowest managementresponsibility level

4

Lowest subdeliverable

Grouping of work packagesfor monitoring progress andresponsibility

5

Cost account*

Work package

Identifiable work activities

Essential Question 3 - Have you accounted for all tasks required to deploy the network?

Gray & Larson, 2000, Figure 3-3


Personal computerprototype

Level1

Moreitems

1.0

1.3

1.1

1.4

1.2

Vendor,software,applications

Mouse,keyboard,voice

Microprocessorunit

Diskstorageunits

2

1.4.1

1.4.2

~

~

1.1.1

1.1.2

1.1.3

Internalmemoryunit

BIOS (basicinput/outputsystem)

3

Floppy

Optical

Hard

~

~

1.4.1.1

1.4.1.2

1.4.2.1

1.4.2.2

1.4.2.3

4

RAM

ROM

I/O

File

Utilities

~

~

~

~

~

Lowest manageablesubdeliverables

1.1.3.1

1.1.3.2

1.1.3.3

1.1.3.4

5

Chassisframe

Circuitboard

Read/writehead

Motor

Cost accountnumber

Cost 1.1.3.4.1 account Cost Cost account account Cost Cost account account Cost account Cost account

Design

Manufacturing

Production

Work packages WP1.1.3.4.2.1 WP1.1.3.4.2.2 WP1.1.3.4.2.3

Organization

Test

Purchasing

Budget byperiod

Software

Gray & Larson, 2000, Figure 3-3


Essential question 4 who will do the work required to deploy the network
Essential Question 4 - Who will do the work required to deploy the network?


Essential Question 5 - Do you have a strong Project Manager in place to coordinate aspects of deployment?


Essential question 6 who will manage all of the vendors needed for deployment
Essential Question 6 - Who will manage all of the vendors needed for deployment?


Scenario
Scenario

  • Project manager Jack was a degree qualified engineer who demonstrated what not to do as a project manager. On the surface he appeared as a well organised manager who provided sufficient amounts of documentation in terms of drawings, project schedules, as well as very detailed instructions what technicians and tradespeople needed to do. Despite this, one feature of Jack’s projects were the constant complaints from those carrying out the tasks. It was not uncommon for these problems to escalate to such a stage where meetings had to be arranged with the section manager where Jack and the other party wereunwilling to compromise.As a consequence his projects went over schedule and budget.


  • What was the problem?

  • Who was at fault?

  • What strategies could Jack have employed to avoid these problems?


Implementation plan
Implementation Plan

  • Gene told you last week…

  • The implementation plan is the single greatest point of failure of many technology strategies

  • A successful plan should incorporate various components and should be highly detailed, controlled and monitored


Definition from lecture 4
Definition (from lecture 4)

  • ‘…Implementation Planning ensures the compatibility of the planning and budgeting processes to support …[strategic goals]…It prescribes commensurate milestones, resource requirements, schedules and performance criteria at both the program and task levels…’ (NASA, 1996)


Implementation planning is an information intensive process
Implementation Planning is an Information Intensive Process

  • Implementation Planning (Gray and Larson, 2002, p.89)

    • provides the basis of scheduling labour and equipment;

    • determines how much money is required

    • becomes an instrument that melds managers and groups together into meeting time, cost and performance objectives

    • answers the question how long is it going to take?


Implementation plan documents

The most current state of the work to be done is represented by the Implementation Plan

The Documents found in prototypical implementation plans include:

Deliverables Document

Work Statements

Sign-Off Sheets

Schedule

Problem Log

Test Plan

Implementation Management Teams

Problem Reports

Change Log

Change Request

Configuration Management

Implementation Resource Requirements

Implementation Plan Documents


Implementation planning is an information intensive process1
Implementation Planning is an Information Intensive Process by the Implementation Plan

There is a need to communicate both

  • the detail

  • the vision


Back to project manager jack
Back to Project Manager Jack… by the Implementation Plan

  • Project manager Jack was a degree qualified engineer who demonstrated what not to do as a project manager. On the surface he appeared as a well organised manager who provided sufficient amounts of documentation in terms of drawings, project schedules, as well as very detailed instructions what technicians and tradespeople needed to do. Despite this, one feature of Jack’s projects were the constant complaints from those carrying out the tasks. It was not uncommon for these problems to escalate to such a stage where meetings had to be arranged with the section manager where Jack and the other party wereunwilling to compromise.As a consequence his projects went over schedule and budget.


Conflict is inevitable and must be managed correctly
Conflict is inevitable and must be managed correctly by the Implementation Plan

  • ‘…The ability to manage conflict is one of the most important skills a project manager must possess…’ (Verma, 1996, p. 113)

  • Conflict can become either

    • a positive force that will propel the project to meetings its stated objectives or

    • A degenerative process of negative interaction between team members that slows the project down.


Styles of conflict filley s model
Styles of Conflict (Filley’s Model) by the Implementation Plan

(Verma, 1996, p123)


Styles of conflict project failure success
Styles of Conflict –Project by the Implementation PlanFailure/Success*

(Verma, 1996, p123)


In search of the golden bullet
In search of the ‘golden bullet’ by the Implementation Plan

  • Filley’s model tells us that relationship maintenance is at the heart of long term success in project management

  • On the other hand, Robbins tells us that if you are surrounded by “yes” people and the emphasis is too much on compromise and not on project goals you may need to introduce “conflict”.


Conflict as a positive force
Conflict as a positive force by the Implementation Plan

  • Evidence of

    • Problem solving

    • Collaboration

    • Compromise


Conflict as a negative force
Conflict as a negative force by the Implementation Plan

  • Evidence of

    • Disengagement

    • Poor communication

    • Poor coordination

    • Project milestones not achieved


Strategies for managing conflict
Strategies for managing conflict by the Implementation Plan

  • Active listening – you must be in a position of understanding all arguments

    • This has the potential of sapping the emotional energy from the debate because people feel that they have had their say and have been understood.


Strategies for managing conflict1
Strategies for managing conflict by the Implementation Plan

  • Look for win-win solutions

    • Aim not to punish dissenters who have high commitment to the project. There may be room for both.

    • Separate warring individuals/groups by

      • Having separate work areas

      • Assigned to different aspects of the project


Strategies for managing conflict2

Concrete Experience by the Implementation Plan

Mary

Hans

Accommodator

Diverger

Reflective

Observation

Active

Experimentation

Xao

Converger

Assimilator

Ting

Will

Abstract Conceptualisation

Strategies for managing conflict

  • Structured conflict - build teams that have complementary skills


Strategies for managing conflict3
Strategies for managing conflict by the Implementation Plan

  • Structured conflict – promote competition between teams

    • E.g. Weekly competition to see who accomplishes most milestones


Strategies for managing conflict4
Strategies for managing conflict by the Implementation Plan

  • Separate individuals from the problem situation

    • Eg “If I had efficient staff the project would be finished on time!” – The emphasis here is on the person rather than the schedule slippage


Strategies for managing conflict5
Strategies for managing conflict by the Implementation Plan

  • Build on strengths (allocate tasks that the individual is good at)

  • Minimise impact of weaknesses – be realistic about what the individual is able to achieve

  • Training - develop new understanding in the minds of colleagues to enable them to better work with available information


Leadership and management revisited from lecture 5

Leaders focus on by the Implementation Plan

Vision

Selling what and why

Longer range

People

Democracy

Enabling

Developing

Challenging

Originating

Innovating

Directing

Policy

Managers focus on

Objectives

Telling how and when

Shorter range

Organisation & structure

Autocracy

Restraining

Maintaining

Conforming

Imitating

Administering

Controlling

Procedures

Leadership and Management (revisited from Lecture 5)


Leadership and management cont d

Leaders focus on by the Implementation Plan

Flexibility

Risk (opportunity)

Top line

Managers focus on

Consistency

Risk (avoidance)

Bottom line

(Verma, 1996, p. 223)

Leadership and Management cont’d

How does one make sensible use of such a

list of attributes?


Is there only one good leadership style
Is There Only One Good Leadership Style? by the Implementation Plan

  • Opinion is divided between two types of a leadership style:

    • concern for Task and

    • concern for People

  • Concern for tasks is where leaders define their role in terms of the goals of the organisation

  • Concern for people is where leaders promoted mutual trust, respect and concern for the feelings of others.


Is there only one good leadership style1
Is There Only One Good Leadership Style? by the Implementation Plan


Is there only one good leadership style2
Is There Only One Good Leadership Style? by the Implementation Plan

  • The big draw back with concentrating on style is that it takes no account of the situation managers are working in

    • ie. kind of tasks,

    • the competency of staff

    • attitudes of staff,

    • the knowledge and attitudes of the manager him/herself etc….


The approach that works best for me
The approach that works best for me… by the Implementation Plan

  • In times of conflict you as the project manager have two choices

    • 1. Change the behaviour of individuals

    • 2. Change the contingent circumstances

  • The emphasis is often on 1.

  • While 2. may be easier and more effective.


1 change individual behaviour
1. Change individual behaviour by the Implementation Plan

  • Training

  • Counselling

  • Forcing (threaten dire consequences)


2 change contingent circumstances
2. Change Contingent Circumstances by the Implementation Plan

  • leader-member relations – promoting better informal relations with staff,

  • task structure – negotiate greater responsibility for tasks – promote ownership of the project

  • position power – delegating decision making to subordinates


Summary
Summary by the Implementation Plan

  • Conflict is inevitable

  • The skilful manager harnesses the potential of conflict to promote project goals.

  • The ‘win-at-all-costs’ manager is likely to promote disengagement and poor project outcomes


References
References by the Implementation Plan

  • Gray, Clifford F and Larson, Erik W. 2000, Project management : the managerial process / Irwin/McGraw-Hill,Boston.

  • NASA, 1996 ‘NASA Strategic Management Handbook’, NASA. Available at: http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codez/strahand/implemen.htm Accessed on: 12 August 2002

  • Karunaratne, Ishan 2002, ‘Callista Implementation Project’, Northern Territory University, Available from: http://mindil.ntu.edu.au/ntu/apps/callistaimp.nsf/vwURL/Implementation+Planning?OpenDocument Accessed; on 12 August 2002

  • Commworks, 2001, ‘As you Implement: Planning for Deployment’. Commworks Available from http://www.commworks.com/Professional_Services/Implement/Planning_Deployment/ Accessed on 12 August 2002.

  • GCRHCorporation 2002, ‘Implementation Planning: When its Got to be Appropriate, Now’, GCRHCorporation, Midland Michigan. Available from http://www.rightanswer.com/english/plan.html Access on 12 August 2002.


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