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Chemical Reactions. http://ssis-chem.wikispaces.com/file/view/mgburnpic.jpg. http://www.reviseguys.com/moodle/course/view.php?id=10. Chemical Reaction. Chemical change = chemical reaction Changes may be visible: color change cloudiness (precipitation) gas formed (bubbles and/or odor)

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chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

http://ssis-chem.wikispaces.com/file/view/mgburnpic.jpg

http://www.reviseguys.com/moodle/course/view.php?id=10

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

chemical reaction
Chemical Reaction
  • Chemical change = chemical reaction

Changes may be visible:

  • color change
  • cloudiness (precipitation)
  • gas formed (bubbles and/or odor)
  • reactant decreases (without dissolving)
  • energy is released or absorbed

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

chemical equations
Chemical Equations
  • Chemical changes can be written symbolically. The symbolic representation is called a chemical equation.

Carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

C + O2 CO2

reactants products

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

chemical equations1
Chemical Equations
  • Reaction arrows can go in either direction:

2 H2 + O2 2 H2O

  • Or both directions:

NH4OH  NH3 + H2O

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

slide5

Or…

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

chemical equations2
Chemical Equations
  • Because of the Law of Conservation of Matter, you must account for all atoms in a chemical change.

Carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon monoxide.

C + O2 CO

2C + O2 2 CO

coefficient

Equation is now balanced.

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

chemical equations3
Chemical Equations
  • A sample of propane, C3H8, when ignited with oxygen produces carbon dioxide and water.

C3H8 + O2 CO2 + H2O

C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

chemical reactions1
Chemical Reactions

Al + O2 Al2O3

CaCO3 + HI  CaI2 + CO2 + H2O

Na3PO4 + BaCl2  NaCl + Ba3(PO4)2

C4H10 + O2  CO2 + H2O

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

chemical equations4
Chemical Equations
  • If you have information on the states of matter, that can be added to the equation.

s = solid l = liquid g = gas aq = aqueous

Aqueous silver nitrate reacts with aqueous potassium chloride to form solid silver chloride and aqueous potassium nitrate.

AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq)  AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

balancing tips
Balancing Tips…
  • Balance polyatomic ions that stay intact as a single unit.
  • Leave hydrogens and oxygens to the last (oxygen very last)
  • Be sure to reduce the coefficients to the smallest whole numbers.

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

slide11

Before

  • Write the balanced chemical equation for the change in the boxes and indicate the reaction type.

After

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

let s look at the lab rxns
Let’s look at the lab rxns…
  • Mg (s) + HCl(aq) ------->
  • CuCO3 (s) ---------->
  • Mg (s) + ------------->
  • NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq)----->
  • CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) -------->

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

let s look at the lab rxns1
Let’s look at the lab rxns…
  • CoCl2 (aq) + Na3PO4 (aq) –>
  • KClO3 (s) + --------->
  • Fe (s) + ---------->
  • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ---->

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

slide14

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -------> MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

  • CuCO3 (s) + -------------> CuO (s) + CO2 (g)
  • 2Mg (s) + O2 (g) -------------> 2MgO (s)
  • NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq)---> NaCl (aq) + H2CO3 (aq) ---->

NaCl(aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

  • CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) --------> Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)
  • 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq) –>Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl (aq)
  • 2KClO3 (s) + -----------------> 2 KCl (s) + 3 O2 (g)
  • 2Fe (s) + O2 (g) ---------------> 2 FeO (s)
  • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

types of reactions
Types of Reactions
  • 1) Combination or Synthesis
  • elements or (element + compound) or compounds ------> compound
  • Fe (s) + S (s) ------> FeS (s)
  • O2 (g) + 2 CO (g) ------> 2 CO2 (g)
  • H2O (l) + SO3 (g) ------> H2SO4 (aq)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

slide16

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -------> MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

  • CuCO3 (s) + -------------> CuO (s) + CO2 (g)
  • 2Mg (s) + O2 (g) -------------> 2MgO (s)
  • NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq)---> NaCl (aq) + H2CO3 (aq) ---->

NaCl(aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

  • CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) --------> Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)
  • 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq) –>Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl (aq)
  • 2KClO3 (s) + -----------------> 2 KCl (s) + 3 O2 (g)
  • 2Fe (s) + O2 (g) ---------------> 2 FeO (s)
  • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

types of reactions1
Types of Reactions
  • 2) Decomposition or Analysis
  • compound ------> elements or (element and compound) or compounds
  • 2 HgO (s) -----> 2Hg (l) + O2 (g)
  • 2 KBrO3 (s) -----> 2 KBr (s) + 3 O2 (g)
  • CaCO3 (s) ------> CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

slide18

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -------> MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

  • CuCO3 (s) + -------------> CuO (s) + CO2 (g)
  • 2Mg (s) + O2 (g) -------------> 2MgO (s)
  • NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq)---> NaCl (aq) + H2CO3 (aq) ---->

NaCl(aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

  • CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) --------> Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)
  • 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq) –>Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl (aq)
  • 2KClO3 (s) + -----------------> 2 KCl (s) + 3 O2 (g)
  • 2Fe (s) + O2 (g) ---------------> 2 FeO (s)
  • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

types of reactions2
Types of Reactions
  • 3) Single Replacement
  • element + compound --------> element + compound
  • Cu (s) + 2AgNO3 (aq) ---->2Ag (s) + Cu(NO3)2 (aq)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

slide20

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -------> MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

  • CuCO3 (s) + -------------> CuO (s) + CO2 (g)
  • 2Mg (s) + O2 (g) -------------> 2MgO (s)
  • NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq)---> NaCl (aq) + H2CO3 (aq) ---->
  • NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
  • CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) --------> Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)
  • 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq) –>Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl (aq)
  • 2KClO3 (s) + -----------------> 2 KCl (s) + 3 O2 (g)
  • 2Fe (s) + O2 (g) ---------------> 2 FeO (s)
  • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

types of reactions3
Types of Reactions
  • 4)Double Replacement

compound + compound —> compound +compound

AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) —> AgCl (s) +NaNO3 (aq)

  • Double Replacement Rxns:

Solid forming

AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) —> AgCl (s) +NaNO3 (aq)

Gas-forming

KHCO3 (aq) + HCl (aq) ----> KCl (aq) + CO2 (g) +H2O (l)

Acid-Base

HCl (aq) + KOH (aq) ----> KCl (aq) + H2O (l)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

slide22

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -------> MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

  • CuCO3 (s) + -------------> CuO (s) + CO2 (g)
  • 2Mg (s) + O2 (g) -------------> 2MgO (s)
  • NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq)---> NaCl (aq) + H2CO3 (aq) ---->
  • NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)
  • CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) --------> Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)
  • 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq) –>Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl (aq)
  • 2KClO3 (s) + -----------------> 2 KCl (s) + 3 O2 (g)
  • 2Fe (s) + O2 (g) ---------------> 2 FeO (s)
  • HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

types of reactions4
Types of Reactions
  • 5) Oxidation-Reduction (redox)

CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) ----> CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)

2Mg (s) + O2 (g) -----------> 2MgO (s)

4HCl (aq) + 3FeCl2 (aq) + KMnO4(aq) --> MnO2(s) + KCl(aq) + 3FeCl3(aq) + 2H2O(l)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

slide24

Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) -------> MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)

CuCO3 (s) + -------------> CuO (s) + CO2 (g)

2Mg (s) + O2 (g) -------------> 2MgO (s)

NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq)---> NaCl (aq) + H2CO3 (aq) ---->

NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

CuSO4 (aq) + Fe (s) --------> Cu (s) + FeSO4 (aq)

3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq) –>Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl (aq)

2KClO3 (s) + -----------------> 2 KCl (s) + 3 O2 (g)

2Fe (s) + O2 (g) ---------------> 2 FeO (s)

HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

solubility rules
Solubility Rules
  • Reactants and products of reactions may be soluble.
  • Use solubility rules to label them.

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

solubility rules1
Solubility Rules

Soluble Ionic Compounds

  • All common compounds of Group IA (1) ions and ammonium ion are soluble.
  • All common nitrates, acetates, and most perchlorates are soluble.
  • All common chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble, except for those of silver (I), lead (II), copper (I) and mercury (I). All common fluorides are soluble except those of lead (II) and Group IIA (2).
  • All common sulfates are soluble except those of calcium, strontium, barium, silver (I), and lead (II).

Insoluble Ionic Compounds

  • All common metal hydroxides are insoluble, except those of Group IA (1) and the larger members of Group IIA (2) (beginning with calcium).
  • All carbonates and phosphates are insoluble, except those of Group IA (1) and ammonium ion.
  • Most other combinations not mentioned above (such as chromates, oxides, sulfides) are insoluble, except those of Group IA (1) and ammonium ion.

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

predicting reactions
Predicting Reactions…
  • Complete and balance the following:

copper(II) chloride reacts with sodium hydroxide

  • CuCl2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) 
  • Double displacement reaction…

CuCl2 (aq) + NaOH (aq)  Cu(OH)2 + NaCl

  • CuCl2 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq)  Cu(OH)2 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

ionic reactions
Ionic reactions
  • Ionic compounds in solution dissociate into ions.
  • CuCl2 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq)  Cu(OH)2 (s) +

2 NaCl (aq)

Is actually…

  • Cu2+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 OH-(aq) Cu(OH)2 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq)

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

net ionic reactions
Net Ionic Reactions
  • Cu2+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq)  Cu(OH)2 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq)
  • Cu2+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq)  Cu(OH)2 (s) + 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq)
  • Cu2+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq)  Cu(OH)2 (s)

net ionic equation

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

net ionic reactions1
Net Ionic Reactions
  • Lead (II) nitrate reacts with potassium iodide
  • Pb(NO3)2 + KI 
  • Pb(NO3)2 + KI  PbI2 + KNO3
  • Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 KI (aq) PbI2 (s) + 2 KNO3 (aq)
  • Pb2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + 2 K+ (aq) + 2 I- PbI2 (s) +

2 K+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq)

  • Pb2+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq) + 2 K+ (aq) + 2 I- PbI2 (s) +

2 K+ (aq) + 2 NO3- (aq)

  • Pb2+ (aq) + 2 I-(aq)  PbI2 (s)

net ionic equation

CHM 1010 PGCC Barbara Gage

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