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System and Circuit Level Power Modeling of Energy- Efficient 3D -Stacked Wide I/ O DRAMs. Karthik Chandrasekar TU Delft. Christian Weis $ , Benny Akesson*, Norbert Wehn $ & Kees Goossens #. *. $. #. Overview. Motivation for 3D-stacking of DRAMs Problem Statement - Power Modeling

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system and circuit level power modeling of energy efficient 3d stacked wide i o drams

System and Circuit Level Power Modeling of Energy-Efficient 3D-Stacked Wide I/O DRAMs

Karthik Chandrasekar

TU Delft

Christian Weis$, Benny Akesson*, Norbert Wehn$ & Kees Goossens#

*

$

#

overview
Overview
  • Motivation for 3D-stacking of DRAMs
  • Problem Statement - Power Modeling
  • Circuit-level DRAM architecture & power model
  • System-level DRAM power model (DRAMPower)
  • Comparison: Results and Analysis
  • Summary

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

motivation why 3d stacked drams
Motivation: Why 3D-Stacked DRAMs?

[I/O power per bit: 0.7mW in TSV vs 2.3mW in PoP vs 4.6mW in Off-Chip – Samsung]

The Performance Vs. Power Factor

We want 3D-Stacking!

Images & Data Courtesy: HMC, JEDEC 42.6, FineTech, Nvidia, Samsung

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

what s missing problem statement
What’s missing? [Problem Statement]

An accurate 3D-DRAM Power Model

to design DRAM-stacked SoCs

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

approaches to power modeling
Approaches to power modeling
  • Circuit-level Power Model
    • Modeling the DRAM architecture at the circuit-level in SPICE
    • Pros: Accurate and detailed
    • Cons: Slow, requires circuit-level understanding of DRAM architecture & technology specifications for DRAMs are publicly unavailable
  • System-level Power Model (like Micron’s)
    • Based on vendor provided datasheet measures and JEDEC specifications
    • Pros: Fast, easy to integrate & employs simple models for memory operations
    • Cons: Accuracy is unclear. Not directly applicable for 3D-DRAMs and is not verified against circuit-level models or hardware measurements.

Need: Fast, Simple & Accurate Model

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

what s the solution
What’s the solution?

Develop

A System-Level 3D-DRAM Power Model

i.e. as accurate as

A Circuit-Level 3D-DRAM Power Model

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

circuit level dram modeling
Circuit-Level DRAM Modeling

Baseline DRAM Model

  • (Weis) DATE‘11 and DAC‘13
  • NGSPICE - PTM/BSIM
  • 1T1C Cell to Banks

2D to 3D (New)

  • Based on DATE ‘11 &

JEDEC Wide IO – x512

  • 4 Banks/Channel
  • 4 Channels
  • TSV Routing
    • Data, Cmd & Addr
    • Control, Clock & Power
  • No ODT (On Die Termination)
    • Low Freq. & IO Capacitance
  • No DLL (Delay Locked Loop)
  • TSV model from IMEC/GaTech

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

system level power model drampower
System-Level Power Model (DRAMPower)

Comparison to Micron model

  • Problem with Micron’s model:
    • Not directly applicable for 3D-DRAMs (Multiple voltage domains and IO)
    • Accuracy is unclear (State transitions not addressed & Approx. workload used)
    • Not verified against circuit-level models or hardware power measurements.
  • Adapting to 3D-DRAMs:
    • Considers multiple voltage domains: (a) Core (b) Derived (Wordline)
    • Includes IO power consumption (Incl. I/O Pads, Buffers, Bumps, Drivers & Pins)
    • RD operation Energy (Generic equation):
  • Modeling for Accuracy:
    • Models memory state transitions – from active to power-down
    • Models self-refresh accurately (functional correctness & timing difference)
    • Most importantly: Is almost as accurate as the circuit-level model

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

self refresh operation accuracy
Self-Refresh Operation - Accuracy
  • Actual
  • Internal Refresh
  • No DLL

We furnish new equations in the system-level power model to address such accuracy issues

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

comparison results analysis
Comparison: Results & Analysis
  • Experiment I:
    • Different Operations
    • Different Granularity
  • Results:
    • Less than 2% difference
    • Adapted Micron SR (200): 72% diff.
  • Experiment II:
    • H.263 Encoder & EPIC Encoder
    • JPEG Encoder & MPEG2 Decoder
    • Different Loads and Power Modes
  • Results:
    • Less than 2% difference
    • Adapted Micron: 12% diff. (SR 500MHz)
  • The 2% difference is due to the use of JEDEC-specified averaged IDD currents.

Shows the accuracy of the system-level power model

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

summary
Summary

Key Highlights:

  • Presented an accurate datasheet-based system-level power model for Wide I/O 3D-stacked DRAMs.
  • Verified the system-level model for accuracy against as a detailed SPICE-based circuit-level 3D-DRAM architecture and power model.
    • Observed < 2% difference in power and energy estimates for different memory operations and for any variations in memory load.

Other Important Contributions:

  • Provided estimates for IDD current measures for different JEDEC 3D-DRAM configurations, in place of the as yet unavailable datasheets (in the paper).
  • The system-level power model (DRAMPower) has been released online as an open-source 3D-DRAM power estimation tool. Download link:

www.drampower.info

Karthik Chandrasekar / TU Delft

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