Evolution change over time
Download
1 / 93

EVOLUTION: CHANGE OVER TIME - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 115 Views
  • Uploaded on

EVOLUTION: CHANGE OVER TIME. In Biology…evolution refers to:. Changes in SPECIES over time A species is a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring. CHARLES DARWIN. Proposed the theory of evolution

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' EVOLUTION: CHANGE OVER TIME' - aren


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Evolution change over time

EVOLUTION:CHANGE OVER TIME


In biology evolution refers to
In Biology…evolution refers to:

  • Changes in SPECIES over time

  • A species is a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.


Charles darwin
CHARLES DARWIN

  • Proposed the theory of evolution

  • He made observations on his voyage around the world…collecting evidence to develop his theory.

  • On the Origin of Species (Book—1859)


Important observations
IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS

  • Noticed a great diversity among a number of species.

  • Plants and animals were suited to the environment in which they lived.

  • Different species lived in similar ecosystems.


Fossil record
FOSSIL RECORD

  • A fossil is the preserved remains of ancient organisms.

    • Some looked like modern animals

    • Some looked different than any modern organisms


The galapagos islands
The Galapagos Islands

  • Very close to one another…but their climates differed greatly-

    • Low elevation: very dry, hot, sparsely vegetated

    • Higher elevation: a lot of rainfall, more diverse plant life



Galapagos tortoises
Galapagos Tortoises

Saddleback Domed


Fitness
FITNESS

  • Organisms compete to survive and reproduce

  • Organisms best suited to their environments are most likely to succeed


Fitness is attributed to
FITNESS is attributed to:

  • Adaptations

    • Any inherited trait that increases an organism’s chance of survival


Natural selection
NATURAL SELECTION

  • SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST—

    • Those that are able to survive will be able to reproduce and pass on their adaptations to the next generation


Natural selection 4 principles
NATURAL SELECTION (4 Principles)

  • VARIATION EXISTS WITHIN POPULATIONS


Natural selection 4 principles1
NATURAL SELECTION (4 Principles)

2. ORGANISMS COMPETE FOR LIMITED NATURAL RESOURCES


Natural selection 4 principles2
NATURAL SELECTION (4 Principles)

3. ORGANISMS PRODUCE MORE OFFSPRING THAN CAN SURVIVE


Natural selection 4 principles3
NATURAL SELECTION (4 Principles)

4. INDIVIDUALS WITH VARIATIONS SUITABLE FOR THEIR HABITAT SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE



Two ways evolution may occur
TWO WAYS EVOLUTION MAY OCCUR

  • GRADUALISM

    • Occurs over a long period of time

  • PUNCTUATEDEQUILIBRIUM

    • Occurs in spurts

    • Caused by:

      • Random change in DNA

      • Sudden environmental changes



Two forms of evolution
TWO FORMS OF EVOLUTION

  • MACROEVOLUTION

    • changes that occur on the tree of life

  • MICROEVOLUTION

    • Changes that occur within a population

    • (group of individuals of the same species living in the same area)



Mutations
MUTATIONS frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Change in DNA sequence

    • Deletion

    • Inversion

    • Translocation

    • Duplication

      …however…


Mutations1
MUTATIONS frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • To affect evolution, mutations must be passed on from one generation to the next…

  • Only mutations in gametes can be passed on…

  • …to affect evolution!


Gene flow
GENE FLOW frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Genes from one population are introduced into the gene pool of another

  • GENE POOL: combined genetic info of all members

  • Basically affected by migration


Genetic drift
GENETIC DRIFT frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Changing the allele frequency

  • Some individuals may have more offspring than others


Bottleneck effect
BOTTLENECK EFFECT frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • A form of genetic drift

  • Sudden and severe decrease in a population size that results from natural disaster, predation, or habitat reduction.


Bottleneck effect1
Bottleneck Effect frequency—there are 5 forces of


Founder s effect
FOUNDER’S EFFECT frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • A form of genetic drift

  • occurs when a new isolated population is founded by a small number of individuals possessing limited genetic variation

    (relative to the larger population from which they have migrated)


Founder s effect1
Founder’s Effect frequency—there are 5 forces of

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Founder_effect-anim.gif


Nonrandom mating
NONRANDOM MATING frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Not all individuals have the opportunity to contribute their genes to the next generation (decreasing their allele frequency)

  • Courtship rituals, pecking orders, breeding territories


Mechanisms of change
MECHANISMS OF CHANGE frequency—there are 5 forces of

MUTATIONS

GENE FLOW (MIGRATION)

GENETIC DRIFT

NATURAL SELECTION


Natural selection1
NATURAL SELECTION frequency—there are 5 forces of


Peppered moths
Peppered Moths frequency—there are 5 forces of



  • What causes new species to form? frequency—there are 5 forces of

    • The evolutionary process called SPECIATION forms new species.

    • New species evolve in 3 ways….


1 geographic isolation
1. GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • A population is divided by a barrier

  • Two geographically isolated populations can no longer reach each other to breed

  • Natural selection on each side causes the populations to become genetically different


1 geographic isolation1
1. GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION frequency—there are 5 forces of


2 parapatric speciation
2. PARAPATRIC SPECIATION frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Two neighboring populations

    • One hot and dry

    • One cooler and wet

  • Natural selection favors different adaptations in area

    • Causing genetic differences

  • At the boundary—individuals breed and make hybrids…


2 parapatric speciation1
2. PARAPATRIC SPECIATION frequency—there are 5 forces of


3 behavioral isolation
3. BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Differences among individuals cause them to choose different mates.

  • Continual, nonrandom mating causes individuals to become genetically different.


3 behavioral isolation1
3. BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION frequency—there are 5 forces of


Extinction
EXTINCTION frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • The death of all individuals within a species.

  • No longer able to survive changing environmental conditions

    -or-

  • No longer able to compete


Evidence of evolution

EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION frequency—there are 5 forces of


Field of palentology
FIELD OF PALENTOLOGY frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Fossils are “dead remains” that prove organisms existed

  • Give information about the age of organism (dating)

  • PROBLEMS??

    • Still missing links

    • Haven’t found all remains


Field of biogeography
FIELD OF BIOGEOGRAPHY frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Geographic distribution of organisms

  • Grouped according to the needs of habitats, resources

  • Similar organisms will arise in the same geographic location


Rhea (South America) frequency—there are 5 forces of

Emu (Australia)

Ostrich (Africa)


Field of biochemistry
FIELD OF BIOCHEMISTRY frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • All living things have DNA

  • Organisms that show close relationships have similar protein and DNA structures


Biochemistry
BIOCHEMISTRY frequency—there are 5 forces of


Biochemistry1
BIOCHEMISTRY frequency—there are 5 forces of


Field of anatomy
FIELD OF ANATOMY frequency—there are 5 forces of

1. Homologousstructures

  • Have similar construction

  • Example:

    • Human arm

    • Cat leg

    • Whale flipper

    • Bat wing


Anatomical homology
ANATOMICAL HOMOLOGY frequency—there are 5 forces of


Field of anatomy1
FIELD OF ANATOMY frequency—there are 5 forces of

2. Analogous structures

  • Serve the same purpose

  • BUT not designed in same way

  • Example:

    • Bird wing

    • Insect wing

    • Bat wing


Analogous structures
ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES frequency—there are 5 forces of


Field of anatomy2
FIELD OF ANATOMY frequency—there are 5 forces of

3. Vestigial structures

  • Seen in organisms of today but not used

  • Example:

    • Appendix

    • Tail bone

    • Whale legs

    • Snake legs


Vestigial structures
VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES frequency—there are 5 forces of


Field of embryology
FIELD OF EMBRYOLOGY frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • (embryo development)

  • Very early stages of development in animals are hard to distinguish between different animals


Embryological homology
EMBRYOLOGICAL HOMOLOGY frequency—there are 5 forces of

IDENTIFY THE ORGANISMS


Embryological homology1
EMBRYOLOGICAL HOMOLOGY frequency—there are 5 forces of

HOW ABOUT NOW?


Embryological homology2
EMBRYOLOGICAL HOMOLOGY frequency—there are 5 forces of

WOW !


Embryological homology3
EMBRYOLOGICAL HOMOLOGY frequency—there are 5 forces of


Patterns of evolution

PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION frequency—there are 5 forces of


Coevolution
COEVOLUTION frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Change in two or more species in close association with each other

  • Change occurs to benefit each other

  • EXAMPLE:

    • Animals and their plants

    • Hummingbird and trumpet flower


Coevolution1
COEVOLUTION frequency—there are 5 forces of


Divergent evolution
DIVERGENT EVOLUTION frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Two or more related species become different


Convergent evolution
CONVERGENT EVOLUTION frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Ancestors were different and become similar


Diversity

DIVERSITY frequency—there are 5 forces of


Diversity1
DIVERSITY frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • TAXONOMY

    • Science of naming and then classifying living things

  • CLASSIFICATION

    • Systematic grouping of organisms based on common characteristics


  • Kingdom frequency—there are 5 forces of

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species

Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach



  • PHYLOGENETIC TREE: relationships among organisms…

    • Diagram that represents the evolutionary history of a species


Phylogenetic trees are used to classify
PHYLOGENETIC TREES relationships among organisms…ARE USED TO CLASSIFY:

  • Organisms into major taxa (groups) based on evolutionary relationships

  • Species in the order in which they descended from a common ancestor using physical characteristics


Phylogenetic tree
PHYLOGENETIC TREE relationships among organisms…


Phylogenetic tree1
PHYLOGENETIC TREE relationships among organisms…


Phylogenetic tree2
PHYLOGENETIC TREE relationships among organisms…


Phylogenetic tree3
PHYLOGENETIC TREE relationships among organisms…

  • Which groups are most closely related?

  • Which groups are least closely related?

  • Which group diverged first (longest ago) in the lineage?


Charles darwin1
Charles Darwin relationships among organisms…


  • Discuss Darwin’s contributions to how living things change over time.

  • Discuss evidence for how living things change over time—including homology, biogeography and fossil record.

  • Discuss the five conditions preventing living things from changing over time (Hardy-Weinberg). What conclusions can you draw based on this information?

  • There are several agents (mechanisms) for how living things change over time, focus your research on the following: genetic drift (including the founder’s effect and bottleneck effect) and gene flow.

  • There are several agents (mechanisms) for how living things change over time, focus your research on the following: natural selection and mutations.

  • What misconceptions did you have prior to your research? What are your conclusions?


Hardy weinberg
Hardy-Weinberg over time.

  • What Is Hardy-Weinberg?

  • How does it work?


Hardy weinberg conditions
Hardy-Weinberg Conditions over time.

  • No Genetic Drift (Infinite Population Size)

    2. No Migration (No Gene Flow)

    3. No Mutation

    4. No Selection (No Differential Selection)

    5. Random Mating (No Differential Reproduction)


Founder s effect2
Founder’s Effect over time.



All blue-eyed people can be traced back to one ancestor who lived 10,000 years ago near the Black SeaBy MICHAEL HANLON

Everyone with blue eyes can be traced back 10,000 years to the Black Sea region. Throughout history they have been the eyes that are prized. Frank Sinatra's were legendary, Paul Newman's melted a million hearts while Cameron Diaz's dazzle in modern Hollywood.But how - and why - blue eyes arose has always been something of a genetic mystery. Until now.According to a team of researchers from Copenhagen University, a single mutation which arose as recently as 6-10,000 years ago was responsible for all the blue-eyed people alive on Earth today.The team identified a single mutation in a gene called OCA2, which arose by chance somewhere around the northwest coasts of the Black Sea in one single individual, about 8,000 years ago.The gene does not "make" blue in the iris; rather, it turns off the mechanism which produces brown melanin pigment. "Originally, we all had brown eyes," says Dr Hans Eiberg, who led the team.And most people still do. The finding that a rare mutation, probably dispersed in the rapid wave of colonization that followed the end of the last ice age, highlights one of the great mysteries of human evolution: the oddness of Europeans. One theory is that Europe's cold weather and dark skies played a part. Fair skin is better at making Vitamin D from the 8 per cent of the world's population have blue eyes weak sunlight found in northern latitudes. Perhaps the most plausible theory is that blonde hair and blue eyes arose because of a mechanism called sex selection.This is where males and females choose as their mates those who have one unusual physical characteristic, not necessarily associated with "fitness" per se but simply something unusual.The gigantic (and otherwise useless) tail of the peacock is the best example.


Variation
VARIATION lived 10,000 years ago near the Black Sea


The new face of america november 18 1993
THE NEW FACE OF AMERICA lived 10,000 years ago near the Black SeaNovember 18, 1993


Images
IMAGES lived 10,000 years ago near the Black Sea

  • ANATOMICAL HOMOLOGY

  • EMBRYOLOGICAL HOMOLOGY

  • VARIATION

  • MECHANISMS OF CHANGE

  • NATURAL SELECTION

  • FINCHES

  • GIRAFFES

  • THE NEW FACE OF AMERICA

  • BLUE EYES

  • FROGS


ad