Chapter 10 chemical reactions
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Chapter 10: Chemical Reactions. Chemical Reactions. Defn – process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged - new substances are formed. Evidences of a chemical reaction. 1) gas production 2) light production 3) temperature change (endo/exothermic)

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Chapter 10: Chemical Reactions

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Chapter 10 chemical reactions

Chapter 10: Chemical Reactions


Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

  • Defn – process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged

    - new substances are formed


Evidences of a chemical reaction

Evidences of a chemical reaction

1) gas production

2) light production

3) temperature change (endo/exothermic)

4) precipitate formed (solid from 2 liquids)

5) permanent color change


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

  • Energy is stored in compounds as chemical potential energy due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

exothermic reaction

endothermic reaction


Word equation

Word Equation

  • Defn – equation expressed in words

Iron + chlorine  iron (III) chloride


Formula equation

Formula Equation

  • Defn – equation with chemical formulas

  • Coefficients – whole # placed in front of compound

    • Balances the number of atoms

2 Fe + 3 Cl2 2 FeCl3


Parts of a reaction

Parts Of A Reaction

  • Symbols

heat added

(s)

solid

Δ

(l)

liquid

(g)

gas

(aq)

aqueous (dissolved in water)


Example

example

  • Solid calcium carbonate reacts with a solution of hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous calcium chloride, gaseous carbon dioxide, and liquid water

+ HCl (aq)

CaCO3 (s)

CaCl2 (aq)

+ CO2 (g)

+ H2O (l)


Diatomic elements

Diatomic Elements

  • Defn – 7 elements that NEVER occur as singular atoms (always paired with an the same or different element)

H2 O2 F2 Br2 I2 N2 Cl2

Ex: 2 HCl + K  2 KCl + H2


Balancing equations

Balancing Equations

  • Number of reactant atoms on left of an element must equal number of product atoms on the right

  • Must obey law of conservation of mass


Rules for balancing equations

Rules for balancing equations

1) Only coefficientsare changed in balancing reactions

2) Never change subscript during balancing

3) Coefficients are placed in front of compound and multiplied across compound to get total # of atoms of each element


Helpful hints

Helpful Hints

  • Balance hydrogen and oxygen last

  • Balance polyatomic ions as a group if present on both reactants and products


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

Before

After

MgCl2 + NaOH  Mg(OH)2 + NaCl

1 Mg

1 Na

1 Mg

1 Na

2 Cl

1 OH

1 Cl

2 OH

MgCl2 + 2 NaOH  Mg(OH)2 + 2 NaCl

1 Mg

2 Na

1 Mg

2 Na

2 Cl

2 (OH)

2 Cl

2 (OH)


Sample problems

Sample Problems

  • sodium and chlorine combine to form sodium chloride

2

+

1

Cl2

2

NaCl

Na


Sample problems1

Sample Problems

  • sodium hydroxide and calcium bromide react to produce calcium hydroxide and sodium bromide

2

1

NaOH

+

CaBr2

1

Ca(OH)2

+

2

NaBr


Sample problems2

Sample Problems

  • aluminum sulfate and calcium hydroxide produce calcium sulfate and aluminum hydroxide

1

3

Al2(SO4)3

+

Ca(OH)2

3

2

CaSO4

+

Al(OH)3


Classifying chemical reactions

Classifying Chemical Reactions

  • Synthesis

  • Decomposition

  • Single replacement

  • Double Replacement

  • Combustion


Synthesis

Synthesis

  • Defn – two or more substances react to form ONE product

    A + B  AB


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

Hey baby let’s get jiggy.


Synthesis1

Synthesis

  • reaction of two elements

2

3

2

___Al + ___Cl2

___AlCl3

Al3+

Cl1-


Decomposition

Decomposition

  • defn – one substance breaks down into two or more simpler products

AB  A + B


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

Break yoself fool!


Decomposition1

Decomposition

  • Ex reaction

2

2

3

__ NaN3 (s) 

___ Na (s)

+ ___ N2 (g)

2

2

1

__ CaO (s) 

___ Ca (s)

+ ___ O2 (g)


Single replacement reactions

Single Replacement Reactions

  • Defn – one element replaces another element in a compound to form new compound

A + BX 

AX + B


Chapter 10 chemical reactions

I’m gon’ dance with yo’ lady


Reactivity series

Reactivity Series

  • metals

  • halogens

Li K Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Au

most active

least active

F Cl Br I

most active

least active


Examples

examples

  • aluminum + iron (III) oxide

Fe3+

O2-

Stronger?

2

1

2

1

+

Al

+

Fe2O3

Fe

Al2O3

Al3+

O2-


Examples1

examples

  • silver + copper (I) nitrate

Cu1+

NO31-

Stronger?

Ag

+

CuNO3

NO RXN


Examples2

examples

  • fluorine gas + sodium bromide

Stronger?

1

2

2

1

F2

+

NaBr

NaF

+

Br2

Na1+

F1-


Examples3

examples

  • chlorine gas + hydrogen fluoride

Stronger?

Cl2

+

HF

NO RXN


Double replacement

Double Replacement

  • Defn – exchange of cations between two ionic compounds

A B + C D 

AD + CB

switch


3 possible products of double replacement rxns

3 possible products of double replacement rxns

  • Precipitate

  • Gas

  • Water


Ex problem

Ex problem

  • lithium iodide and aqueous silver nitrate react

Li1+

I1-

Ag1+

NO31-

Li I

Ag I (s)

+

AgNO3

LiNO3

+


Combustion

Combustion

  • defn – compound reacts with O2

  • Hydrocarbon – cmpd w/ only carbon and hydrogen


Combustion1

Combustion

  • Combustion of hydrocarbons

    ALWAYS produces CO2 and H2O

CxHy + O2

CO2 + H2O


Ex problem1

Ex problem

  • show combustion of propane (C3H8) gas

1

C3H8

+

5

O2

3

CO2

+

4

H2O


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