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Chapter 10: Chemical Reactions. Chemical Reactions. Defn – process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged - new substances are formed. Evidences of a chemical reaction. 1) gas production 2) light production 3) temperature change (endo/exothermic)

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chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions
  • Defn – process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged

- new substances are formed

evidences of a chemical reaction
Evidences of a chemical reaction

1) gas production

2) light production

3) temperature change (endo/exothermic)

4) precipitate formed (solid from 2 liquids)

5) permanent color change

slide4
Energy is stored in compounds as chemical potential energy due to specific arrangements of atoms. A chemical reaction changes the potential energy present. When energy is lost as heat, it is called a __________________. These reactions get hotter. Sometimes energy is gained; heat is added for a reaction to occur. These are called ______________________, which get colder.

exothermic reaction

endothermic reaction

word equation
Word Equation
  • Defn – equation expressed in words

Iron + chlorine  iron (III) chloride

formula equation
Formula Equation
  • Defn – equation with chemical formulas
  • Coefficients – whole # placed in front of compound
    • Balances the number of atoms

2 Fe + 3 Cl2 2 FeCl3

parts of a reaction
Parts Of A Reaction
  • Symbols

heat added

(s)

solid

Δ

(l)

liquid

(g)

gas

(aq)

aqueous (dissolved in water)

example
example
  • Solid calcium carbonate reacts with a solution of hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous calcium chloride, gaseous carbon dioxide, and liquid water

+ HCl (aq)

CaCO3 (s)

CaCl2 (aq)

+ CO2 (g)

+ H2O (l)

diatomic elements
Diatomic Elements
  • Defn – 7 elements that NEVER occur as singular atoms (always paired with an the same or different element)

H2 O2 F2 Br2 I2 N2 Cl2

Ex: 2 HCl + K  2 KCl + H2

balancing equations
Balancing Equations
  • Number of reactant atoms on left of an element must equal number of product atoms on the right
  • Must obey law of conservation of mass
rules for balancing equations
Rules for balancing equations

1) Only coefficientsare changed in balancing reactions

2) Never change subscript during balancing

3) Coefficients are placed in front of compound and multiplied across compound to get total # of atoms of each element

helpful hints
Helpful Hints
  • Balance hydrogen and oxygen last
  • Balance polyatomic ions as a group if present on both reactants and products
slide13
Before

After

MgCl2 + NaOH  Mg(OH)2 + NaCl

1 Mg

1 Na

1 Mg

1 Na

2 Cl

1 OH

1 Cl

2 OH

MgCl2 + 2 NaOH  Mg(OH)2 + 2 NaCl

1 Mg

2 Na

1 Mg

2 Na

2 Cl

2 (OH)

2 Cl

2 (OH)

sample problems
Sample Problems
  • sodium and chlorine combine to form sodium chloride

2

+

1

Cl2

2

NaCl

Na

sample problems1
Sample Problems
  • sodium hydroxide and calcium bromide react to produce calcium hydroxide and sodium bromide

2

1

NaOH

+

CaBr2

1

Ca(OH)2

+

2

NaBr

sample problems2
Sample Problems
  • aluminum sulfate and calcium hydroxide produce calcium sulfate and aluminum hydroxide

1

3

Al2(SO4)3

+

Ca(OH)2

3

2

CaSO4

+

Al(OH)3

classifying chemical reactions
Classifying Chemical Reactions
  • Synthesis
  • Decomposition
  • Single replacement
  • Double Replacement
  • Combustion
synthesis
Synthesis
  • Defn – two or more substances react to form ONE product

A + B  AB

synthesis1
Synthesis
  • reaction of two elements

2

3

2

___Al + ___Cl2

___AlCl3

Al3+

Cl1-

decomposition
Decomposition
  • defn – one substance breaks down into two or more simpler products

AB  A + B

decomposition1
Decomposition
  • Ex reaction

2

2

3

__ NaN3 (s) 

___ Na (s)

+ ___ N2 (g)

2

2

1

__ CaO (s) 

___ Ca (s)

+ ___ O2 (g)

single replacement reactions
Single Replacement Reactions
  • Defn – one element replaces another element in a compound to form new compound

A + BX 

AX + B

reactivity series
Reactivity Series
  • metals
  • halogens

Li K Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb Cu Ag Au

most active

least active

F Cl Br I

most active

least active

examples
examples
  • aluminum + iron (III) oxide

Fe3+

O2-

Stronger?

2

1

2

1

+

Al

+

Fe2O3

Fe

Al2O3

Al3+

O2-

examples1
examples
  • silver + copper (I) nitrate

Cu1+

NO31-

Stronger?

Ag

+

CuNO3

NO RXN

examples2
examples
  • fluorine gas + sodium bromide

Stronger?

1

2

2

1

F2

+

NaBr

NaF

+

Br2

Na1+

F1-

examples3
examples
  • chlorine gas + hydrogen fluoride

Stronger?

Cl2

+

HF

NO RXN

double replacement
Double Replacement
  • Defn – exchange of cations between two ionic compounds

A B + C D 

AD + CB

switch

ex problem
Ex problem
  • lithium iodide and aqueous silver nitrate react

Li1+

I1-

Ag1+

NO31-

Li I

Ag I (s)

+

AgNO3

LiNO3

+

combustion
Combustion
  • defn – compound reacts with O2
  • Hydrocarbon – cmpd w/ only carbon and hydrogen
combustion1
Combustion
  • Combustion of hydrocarbons

ALWAYS produces CO2 and H2O

CxHy + O2

CO2 + H2O

ex problem1
Ex problem
  • show combustion of propane (C3H8) gas

1

C3H8

+

5

O2

3

CO2

+

4

H2O

ad