Virtual reality the revolution in welding training
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Virtual Reality The Revolution in Welding Training. Chris Bailey Lincoln Electric Company May 10, 2011. World-Class Products. Arc welding equipment: Power sources Wire feeding systems Robotic welding packages. World-Class Products. Consumables Stick electrodes

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Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

Virtual RealityThe Revolution in Welding Training

Chris Bailey

Lincoln Electric Company

May 10, 2011


World class products

World-Class Products

Arc welding equipment:

  • Power sources

  • Wire feeding systems

  • Robotic welding packages


World class products1

World-Class Products

Consumables

  • Stick electrodes

  • MIG, Flux-Cored, Submerged Arc, Stainless Steel, Aluminum and Non-Ferrous Wires

  • Brazing and Soldering Alloys


World class products2

World-Class Products

  • Plasma & Oxy-Fuel Cutting

  • Vernon Tool™ Pipe & Tube Cutting Equipment

  • Soldering & Brazing Equipment


Industry specific solutions

Industry-Specific Solutions

  • Transportation / Automotive

  • Process & Power Generation

  • Offshore

  • Pipeline

  • Maintenance & Repair

  • Structural Steel & Construction

  • Heavy Fabrication

  • Shipbuilding

  • Pipe Mill


Global presence

Global Presence

42 Manufacturing Facilities

in 21 Countries


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training1

Virtual RealityThe Revolution in Welding Training

Lessons Learned in the Development of a Welding Training Simulator


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training presentation outline

Virtual RealityThe Revolution in Welding TrainingPresentation Outline

  • Introduction

  • Evolution of a Virtual System

  • Does Virtual Training Work?

  • What Did We Expect?

  • What Surprised Us?

  • Open Discussion


What is virtual reality

What is Virtual Reality ?

  • The concept of Virtual Reality uses:

    • Computer technology to create a simulated, three dimensional world

      • Goal - Immersion or the feeling that the user is in that world

    • Tracking technology that allows the user to interact with the environment in a meaningful way

      • Goal – Teach a skill using these interactions


Virtual reality applications

Twistedsifter.com

Virtual Reality Applications

  • Flight Simulators

  • Medical Procedure Simulations

  • Driving Simulators

  • Combat Simulations

  • Heavy Equipment Operation

    • Cranes

    • Drills

Reduce cost and increase the rate of skill transfer


Evolution of training systems

Evolution of Training Systems

Fronius

Arc123

CS Wave

VRTEX 360

DVS

VRSim


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

Ordinance School

Aberdeen Proving Grounds


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

Virtual Reality Weld Training


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

Virtual Reality Training

All Looking for the Same Thing

  • Training Drivers

    • Faster

    • Better

    • More Standardized

    • Greater Throughput

  • Shipyard Drivers

    • Aging Workforce is Retiring

    • Fewer Vocational Welding Programs

    • Widening Skilled Trades Gap for Shipbuilding

    • Longer Lead Time for Skilled Welders


Virtual reality training a spects of vr training

Virtual Reality TrainingAspects of VR Training

VR is not a Replacement for Existing Training Methods, but a Compliment to Traditional Methods

More Exposure for Students (More Reps)

New Generations Expect an Environment more Fused with Computers

Reduced Waste

Increased Safety

Cost Effective


Virtual reality training a spects of vr training1

Virtual Reality TrainingAspects of VR Training

Reduced the Overall Training Time When Compared to Conventional Methods

Certification Results Improved

Improved the Image of Welding

Recruitment of Welders Improved


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

Virtual Reality Training in Welding: An analysis of the physiological and cognitive impact in the pursuit of training

Richard T. Stone Ph.D., AEP, CSP, FACS

Iowa State University


Goal of these studies

Goal of These Studies

Study the Effectiveness of Using a VR Device to Train Welders

Investigate Cognitive and Physiological Aspects of VR Training

Use Study Outcomes to Further Refine Current VR Design


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training pre study

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingPre-study

  • Worked with and Evaluated 16 Expert Welders

  • Lincoln Electric and Vermeer Provided Resources and Support for Study Operations

  • UA 33 Pledged 40 Volunteers to Serve in the Experiment

  • Black 1070 was Converted to a 6 Station Welding Facility, 1066 was Partially Converted to a 2 Station VR Welding Facility

  • All Experimenters were Trained in Welding Techniques

  • Developed Benchmarks


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50

Two Groups

One trained with VR device for 50% of the time and traditional methods for 50% of the time

One trained in traditional methods100% of the time

Training for 2 weeks each with 8 – 12 hour days)

Two Electrode Groups

E6010

E7018

Four Joint Configurations

2F, 3F, 1G, 3G

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld Training Experimental Design (VR 50)


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 501

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld Training Experimental Design (VR 50)

  • Two-man team approach

  • One individual welding and one individual reviewing the instructor monitor

  • Alternate for equal activity


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 performance criteria

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld Training Experimental Design (VR 50)Performance Criteria

  • Certification on a simple pass fail basis

  • Quality determined by actual review of samples


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 outcomes performance

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld Training Experimental Design (VR 50)Outcomes Performance

In terms of Groove Welds (1G and 3G), VR group demonstrated a significantly higher level of Synthesis and Evaluation capability


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 performance criteria1

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld Training Experimental Design (VR 50)Performance Criteria

Experiment Details and Additional Outcomes


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 physical measures

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld Training Experimental Design (VR 50)Physical Measures

Primary Analysis: The investigation of Muscular Activation and Postural Analysis

Objective: Determine the degree to which groups move, respond, and develop when compared to expert welders


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 measurement muscle activity

EMG

Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles

It detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated

Analyzed using marker

based video analysis

(track body postures)

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Measurement – Muscle Activity


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 measurement muscle activity1

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Measurement – Muscle Activity

  • Muscles

    • Deltoid

    • Trapezius

    • Extensor Digitorum

    • Flexor Carpi Radialis


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 measurement posture

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Measurement – Posture

Posture – Angles at joints

Posture model and landmarks

Shoulder

R Elbow R Wrist

R Hand

L Hand

L ElbowL Wrist

Marker based video analysis

Attach small marker to their skin or tight fitting clothing on the body landmarks


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Physiological Development Outcome

VR and TW group members utilized muscles of importance in a way that was (highly correlated) similar to expert welders (3G and 3F)

VR and TW groups were found significantly different from one another in overall muscle activation (1G)

VR group more likely to adopt unusual body posture when compared to TW or expert welders


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Cognitive Development Outcomes

  • VR group and TW group were not significantly different from one another in terms of their understanding of horizontal Filet Welds (2F)

  • In terms of Groove Welds (1G and 3G) the VR group demonstrated a significantly higher level of synthesis and evaluation capability


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 team interaction evaluation

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Team Interaction Evaluation

Four Dimensions of Team Learning

  • Continuous improvement seeking

  • Dialogue promotion and open communication

  • Collaborative learning

  • Strategic and proactive leadership promoting team development


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Dialogue Promotion and Open Communication


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 collaborative learning

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Collaborative Learning


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

2F


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

1G


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

3F


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training

3G


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 unintended consequences

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Unintended Consequences

  • Greater Impact on Cooperation/Teaming

  • Experimental Mindset (body posture)

  • The “Root Pass Phenomenon” (“The Quick Discard”)

  • The Competitive Challenge

  • Encourages Experimentation

“The VR machine provided a conduit by which participants were

not only more likely to communicate, but more likely to value the

communication and improve their skills.”

- Richard Stone, Ph.D.


Virtual reality vs traditional weld training experimental design vr 50 teaching challenges

Virtual RealityvsTraditional Weld TrainingExperimental Design (VR 50)Teaching Challenges

  • Acceptance – Broaden the Appeal

    • From Shop Floor to Executive Suite

  • Integration

    • Curriculum

  • Effective Delivery

    • Over Multiple Modes

  • Transitioning to the Booth

    • Not only Virtual to Real, but also Theory to Practice


Sources

Sources

Stone, R.T., Watts, K., Zhong, P., & Wei, C-S.(2010). Physiological and cognitive effects of virtual reality integrated training.

Stone, R.T., Watts, K., Zhong, P. (2010). Virtual Reality Integrated Weld Training.


Virtual reality the revolution in welding training2

Virtual RealityThe Revolution in Welding Training

Chris Bailey

Lincoln Electric Company

May 10, 2011


Virtual reality welding training installations

Virtual Reality Welding TrainingInstallations

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