How are schools governed influenced and financed
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How are Schools Governed, Influenced, and Financed?. Chapter 11. Who legally governs public education?. Responsibility for public schools is a state function-Tenth Amendment to the constitution State versus local control Governors play leadership role.

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How are Schools Governed, Influenced, and Financed?

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How are Schools Governed, Influenced, and Financed?

Chapter 11

Who legally governs public education?

  • Responsibility for public schools is a state function-Tenth Amendment to the constitution

  • State versus local control

  • Governors play leadership role

Organizational Structure of a typical state school system

State Constitution

State Legislature


State Courts

State Board of Education

State Superintendent

(Chief State School Officer)

State Department of Education

Organizational Structure-continued

Local School Districts

Local Superintendents

Local School Principals



Mark Twain

In the first place, God made idiots.

That was for practice.

Then he made school boards.

School Boards

  • School boards lack diversity

  • Elected by popular vote-96% of states

  • 4% of school boards are appointed by mayor of city council

  • Majority are male, white, between ages 41 and 60

  • Demographic characteristics have changed little

School Boards

  • Proportion of women has increased

  • 12% to 39% increase since 1972

  • Representation of minorities is small

  • 83% have incomes over $50,000

  • 66% have bachelor’s degrees

  • Most are professionals, managers, business owners

  • Conservative

Atypical aspects of school boards

  • Not typical of the public they serve

  • Influences on values and decisions

    Can you think of any ways in which this atypical aspect might influence their values and decisions?

Who Influences American Public Education

  • Professional Education Organizations

  • Site based decision making

  • Parents

  • PTA

  • PTO

  • Business

Neil Postman

The classroom is … a place in which the claims of various political, social, and economic interests are negotiated. The classroom is both a symbol and a product of deadly serious cultural bargaining.

High Stakes Standardized Testing

NCLB-the 2001 reauthorization required states to test students each year between grades 3 and 8 and once in high school if they wish to receive federal funds.

45 states require teachers to pass a state-prescribed, test before entering a teacher education program and before being licensed to teach

How are schools financed?

  • Locally raised revenues

  • State aid

  • Federal aid

  • Miscellaneous revenues

School Spending

  • Nationwide average $8,554 per pupil

  • District of Columbia is $15,073 per pupil

  • Utah is $5,245 per pupil


School Finance Reform and the Courts

  • Serrano v. Priest

  • Rodriguez case

  • Unequal funding

  • Equality as state concern

  • Pressures for equality

Federal Funding

  • Categorical grants

  • Block grants

  • NCLB

NCLB Act Key Provisions

  • Annual testing

  • Academic improvement

  • Teacher and Paraprofessional qualifications

    Concerns about NCLB

    • Students at risk

    • Special Education

    • State standards lack uniformity

Compensatory Education

  • An approach to creating more equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged children

  • Title I

    1. deliver federal funds to local school districts and schools for education of students from low-income families

    2. supplement educational services provided to low-achieving students

Compensatory Education-cont.

  • Preventive approaches-Head Start

  • Basic skill instruction

  • Tutoring

  • Remediation in academic areas

  • Drop out programs

  • Job training

  • Adult literacy instruction

  • Success for All program-

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