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WOMEN IN PUBLIC LIFE. 17.2. Besides eating bon-bons…. Before the Civil War, women married, stayed home, looked after their families Late 19 th c – only middle- and upper- class women could afford to stay home Poor women had no choice but to work for wagesWomen Lead Reform

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besides eating bon bons
Besides eating bon-bons…
  • Before the Civil War, women married, stayed home, looked after their families
  • Late 19th c – only middle- and upper- class women could afford to stay home
  • Poor women had no choice but to work for wagesWomen Lead Reform
  • Women split over 14th and 15th Amendment.
  • Susan B Anthony, “sooner cut off my right hand than ask for the ballot for the black Man and not for women”
what jobs were available
What jobs were available?
  • Farm jobs – women did both household jobs and such farm work as necessary:
    • Raising livestock
    • Plowing
    • Planting
    • harvesting
women in industry
Women in Industry
  • Once better paying options became available, women looked for work away from the farms
    • Jobs in cities and town
    • Labor unions shunned them
  • By 1900, 1 in 5 women had jobs; 25% of them worked in factories
garment industry
Garment Industry
  • Most women worked in this trade
    • Least skilled jobs
    • About ½ pay of men
      • Women assumed to be single, not supporting families
what the other half did
What the other half did..
  • Offices, stores, classrooms
  • Jobs requiring HS education
    • By 1890, more women than men w/HS diploma – WHY?
  • Business schools trained others:
    • Bookkeepers, typists, stenographers
domestic workers
DOMESTIC WORKERS
  • w/o education or industrial skills: domestic work
  • 2 million AA-women freed from slavery but driven by poverty to work
    • Farm and domestic work
    • Migrated to cities: cooks, laundresses, scrubwomen, maids
  • 70% of women employed in 1870 were servants
  • Unmarried immigrants: domestic work
  • Married women: piecework, took in boarders
women lead reform
WOMEN LEAD REFORM
  • What conditions needed correcting?
    • Dangerous working conditions
      • Safety of workers (firetraps for workplaces)
    • Low wages
    • Long hours
  • After Triangle Shirtwaist Co. Fire, middle- and upper-class women joined reform movements
  • Women’s clubs now discussed temperance, child labor instead of books & art
women and higher education
Women and Higher Education
  • As number of women in colleges grew, so did women’s involvement in reform movements
    • Vassar 1865
    • Smith & Wellesly – 1875
    • Columbia, Harvard, Brown – would not accept women but set up separate colleges for them
  • By late 19th c, marriage is not the only option
    • ½ of college women never married (late 19th c)
reform efforts
Reform Efforts
  • Workplace health and safety
  • Could not vote or run for office but tried to improve conditions at work and home
    • Workplace reform
    • Housing reform
    • Educational improvement
    • Food and drug laws
slide11
NACW
  • National Association of Colored Women – 1896
  • Merged 2 earlier groups
  • Mission: moral education of the race
    • Managed:
      • kindergartens
      • Reading rooms
      • nurseries
split over 14 th and 15th a
Split over 14th and 15th A
  • Seneca Falls Convention 1848
    • Women split over suffrage issue
      • Susan B. Anthony: “sooner cut off my right

hand than ask for the ballot for the black man and not for women.”

  • 1869, Anthony and Cady Stanton found NWSA - National Women Suffrage Association
    • 1890 merge w/others to become NAWSA (Amer)
anti woman suffrage
Anti-Woman Suffrage
  • Liquor industry
  • Textile industry
  • Men – who feared changing role of women in society
three part strategy
Three-Part Strategy
  • Convince state legislatures to give women the right to vote
  • Test 14th A in courts: state sdenying male citizens the right to vote lose representatives – aren’t women citizens?
  • National constitutional amendment
strategy on states
Strategy on States
  • 1869: Wyoming
  • 1890s: Utah, Colorado, Idaho
  • After 1896, other states refused to go along
strategy on court cases
Strategy on court cases
  • 1871-72- Susan B. Anthony and others test this theory 150 times in 10 states and in DC
  • SC says “yes” to citizenship, but the right to vote does not automatically follow!
constitutional amendment strategy
Constitutional Amendment Strategy?
  • Cady Stanton got the amendment introduced in CA, but it was killed
  • Over 41 years, it was introduced and shot down
  • Only modest success by century’s end
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