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Skeletal System Functions. Support Protection of organs Framework for movement Calcium storage Blood cell production (bone marrow). Axial vs. Appendicular Skeleton. Axial: Skull, rib cage, vertebrae Appendicular: Arms and legs. Connective tissue and cartilage.

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Skeletal System Functions

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Skeletal system functions l.jpg

Skeletal System Functions

  • Support

  • Protection of organs

  • Framework for

    movement

  • Calcium storage

  • Blood cell production

    (bone marrow)


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Axial vs. Appendicular Skeleton

Axial:

  • Skull, rib cage,

    vertebrae

    Appendicular:

  • Arms and legs


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Connective tissue and cartilage

  • Tendons - attach muscles to bones (muscles pull on bones to create movement)

  • Ligaments - connect bones to other bones at joints

  • Cartilage - provides cushioning and lubrication at joints

    *all three are found at most joints (area where two or more bones meet)


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Types of muscle

  • Skeletal muscle

  • Cardiac (heart)

  • Smooth (blood vessels and organs (ex. stomach)

    * only skeletal is voluntary (we have conscious control over it)


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Functions of skeletal muscle

  • Movement of the skeleton

  • Maintaining Posture

  • Stabilize joints

  • Generate heat


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Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle

Muscle

(fiber)

fascicle

Sarcomere: Made of actin and myosin proteins


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Actin and Myosin

  • Actin and myosin are proteins that cause muscles to contract

  • Myosin attaches to actin and pulls on it to cause a muscle contraction

  • Form the sarcomere


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Control of muscle contraction

  • Nerve cells called motor neurons signal muscles to contract at our command


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Nervous System

FUNCTION: Allows for all parts of the body to communicate with the brain and spinal chord so we can sense our environment

  • Central Nervous System - made of the brain and spinal chord

  • Peripheral Nervous System - all nerve cells outside of the CNS (2 types of nerve cells):

    • sensory neurons - for your sense of sight, touch, hearing, tasting, etc.

    • motor neurons (for controlling movement of your muscles and control of other organs and glands)


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Communication between nerve cells

  • Neurons (nerve cells) communicate with each other using electrical signals called action potentials (nerve impulses) and chemical messengers called neurotransmitters


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Structure of a Neuron (a nerve cell)

  • Axon - transmits nerve impulses to communicate with other cells and organs

  • Dendrites - receive signals from other neurons

  • Myelin sheath - fatty coating on axon that speeds up impulses

  • Neurotransmitters - chemicals released from one neuron that allow signals to pass to other neurons

  • Axon terminals - end of the axon where neurotransmitters are released

Neurotransmitters

released from here


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Circulatory System

  • Transports O2, CO2, and nutrients around the body

  • Arteries (carry blood away from the heart)

  • Veins (carry blood towards the heart)

  • Capillaries (where nutrients and O2 diffuse into your body tissues and cells)


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Blood Cells and Platelets

  • Red Blood Cells - transports O2 and CO2 in the blood

  • White Blood Cells - help to defend the body against foreign invaders and cancer cells

  • Platelets - function in blood clotting

    * All are produced in bone marrow


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Veins (blue)

Arteries (red)

capillaries


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The Heart

  • Consists of 4 chambers

  • Pumping chambers are the ventricles:

    - Right ventricle pumps blood to lungs

    - Left vent. pumps blood to rest of body

  • Receiving chambers are the atria


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Path of Blood Through the Heart

4. O2 rich blood (to body)

O2 poor blood

from body

2. To lungs

2. To lungs

3. from lungs

3. from lungs

O2 poor blood

from body


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Coronary Blood Vessels

  • Coronary arteries supply heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients

  • Heart attacks occur when a blockage occurs in a coronary artery


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Respiratory System

FUNCTION: To take in oxygen and exchange it for carbon dioxide.

  • Larynx - contains vocal chords

  • Trachea - “windpipe”; air passes through this tube on way to the lungs

  • Bronchi - branches of trachea going to each lung

  • Bronchioles - smaller branches of the bronchi

  • Alveoli - air sacs surrounded by capillaries where oxygen is exchanged for CO2 - (blood returns to heart from here)


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Digestive System and Excretory System

FUNCTION: Breakdown food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream AND elimination of wastes

  • Mechanical digestion - physical breakdown of food (chewing, churning of the stomach)

  • Chemical digestion - breakdown of food by enzymes (occurs in saliva, stomach, and small intestines)

  • Elimination of wastes (large intestine (feces), liver and kidneys (remove wastes from blood))


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Esophagus

muscular tube through

which food and drink

travel to the stomach

Liver

removes wastes

from the blood and

produces bile to help

digest fats

Gallbladder

stores bile and sends

it to small intestine

Stomach

food is mixed with

enzymes and acids

Small intestine-

nutrients absorbed into

bloodstream

Large intestine-

Undigested food is

eliminated in feces


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Urinary System

  • Kidneys filter toxins out of the blood and produce urine

  • Each kidney contains small filtering units called nephrons

  • There are 1 million nephrons per kidney


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