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NCLB AND VALUE-ADDED APPROACHES ECS State Leader Forum on Educational Accountability June 4, 2004 Stanley Rabinowitz - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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NCLB AND VALUE-ADDED APPROACHES ECS State Leader Forum on Educational Accountability June 4, 2004 Stanley Rabinowitz, Ph.D. WestEd [email protected] GUIDING QUESTIONS. What are the goals/assumptions/values of Value-Added accountability models?

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NCLB ANDVALUE-ADDED APPROACHESECS State Leader Forum on Educational Accountability June 4, 2004Stanley Rabinowitz, [email protected]


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GUIDING QUESTIONS

  • What are the goals/assumptions/values of Value-Added accountability models?

  • What are the pros and cons of Value-Added accountability models?

  • What are the requirements of Value-Added accountability models (data, technical, political)?

  • Are there alternatives that provide “similar” information?


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ACCOUNTABILITY MODELS

  • Status

  • Cohort

  • Same students (unmatched)

  • Same students (matched)—“Value Added”

    ------------------------------------------------------

  • All models are defensible (assumptions, values)

  • All models can be interpreted as “growth”


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ACCOUNTABILITY MODELS (cont.)

  • Multiple (Simultaneous) Models

    - two tier (funnel into state system)

    - federal and state system (side-by-side)

    - combine status and growth

    - formal and informal systems (program improvement)

  • Advantages of multiple systems

    - differing assumptions may be appropriate for different audiences and purposes

    - approval

  • Disadvantages of multiple systems

    - need to administer multiple systems

    - interpret/explain differing results


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CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM

  • Values

  • Assessment

    - content

    - technical

  • Data systems

  • Political


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CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM: VALUES

  • Concept of “one-year’s growth” (across grades, content areas, students)

  • Individual student growth most important measure of school effectiveness (student by student)

  • Classroom/teacher effect most important factor in student success (vs. school, district, home, community)

  • Student test scores are a proxy for effective teaching

  • Changes in standardized test scores are what is valued


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CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM: ASSESSMENT

  • Test questions of varying difficulty in order to adequately discriminate among the range of achievers typically found in a classroom, school, district, state

  • Sufficient validity and reliability of the underlying instrument(s) (reliability of difference scores)

  • A set of scaled tests, vertically equated, aligned to the curriculum

  • NRT vs. CRT


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CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM: DATA SYSTEMS

  • Longitudinally merged student data base (unique student identifiers)

  • Student data need to be traceable back to the focus of accountability (teacher, classroom, school, district…)

  • Data to be controlled for other factors (e.g., socioeconomic indicators, disabilities)

  • Unmatched students?

  • Mobility across state and across schools?

  • Multiple teachers?


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CHALLENGES OF A VALUE-ADDED SYSTEM: POLITICAL

  • NCLB status

  • Black box vs. transparency of system

  • Specific attribution of blame/responsibility

  • Expected opposition

  • Large year-to-year swings in value-added scores that administrators could not explain

  • Assumption that all learning takes place in the classroom, although the model "has not provided adequate evidence to support this contention"


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PSEUDO VALUE-ADDED MODEL

  • Fully aligned content standards

  • Fully aligned performance standards

  • Sufficient variability within performance categories (e.g., break out basic into low, medium, high basic)

  • Accountability based on growth of individual students or groups (within and across categories)

  • Assign point values for different types of growth

    - value of reaching proficient

    - value at other points (advanced, at least basic)

    - value of lowest category (0?)

  • Focus attention at performance labels, especially Proficient

  • Lower technical requirements

  • Easier political discussion


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