Gender. Sex v. Gender. Sex: the biological differences between male and female Genetic (chromosomes), anatomical (organs, structures) Gender: the social classification of masculine and feminine Refers to the way members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave
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Boys will be Girls
Girls will be Boys
Norm around the world
One cultural universal—an element found in every society the world over—is the incest taboo, a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives.
In the U.S., law and cultural mores prohibit close relatives (including brothers and sisters, parents and children) from having sex or marrying. But exactly which family members are prohibited are different in every culture.Incest Taboo
Profound changes occurred during the twentieth century.
In the 1920’s millions of people migrated from farms and small towns to the large cities.
Cars were rooms on wheels
Technology also played a part in the sexual revolution.
“The Pill,” was introduced in 1960 not only making preventing pregnancy but making sex more convenient.
Double Standard-society allows men to be sexually active while expecting women to remain chaste before marriage and faithful to their husbands afterward.
The sexual revolution increased sexual activity overall, but it changed behavior among women more than men.
The Sexual Counter Revolution— the world over—is the incest taboo, a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives. was a political call from the conservatives to return to “family values.”
Cohabitation brings children into the world where their parents are not married.
This simply did not change the minds of the general public, what happened was the increased number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD).
Herpes is incurable and AIDS is a deadly disease.
Teen Pregnancy— Being sexually active— especially having intercourse— demands a high level of responsibility because pregnancy can result.
Pornography— is sexually explicit material that causes sexual arousal.
What exactly is or is not pornographic has long been a matter of debate.
Prostitution— is the selling of sexual services.
Often called the “world’s oldest profession.”
Call girls the world over—is the incest taboo, a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives. are elite prostitutes, typically women who are young, attractive and well educated and arrange their own appointments with clients by telephone.
These women offer companionship and sex for a fee.
Sex workers in the middle category are employed in “massage parlors” or brothels under the control of managers.
These people have less choice about their clients and receive less money for their services, getting to keep more than half of what they make.
Street walkers are women and men who work the streets of large cities.
Females workers are often under the control of pimps who take most of their earnings.
Rape— an expression of power, a violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person.
The official definition of rape is “the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly against her will.”
Date Rape— involves people who know one another, and the incident usually occurs in familiar surroundings especially in the home.
The structural-functional approach highlights the contributions of any social pattern to the overall operation of society.
Because sexuality is an important dimension of social life, society regulates sexual behavior.
Symbolic-Interaction Analysis the world over—is the incest taboo, a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives.
The Social Construction of Sexuality the world over—is the incest taboo, a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives.
A century ago, our society’s norm—for women—was virginity before marriage. This norm was strong because, without effective birth control, virginity was the only assurance a man had that his bride to be was not carrying another man’s child.
Conflict Analysis the world over—is the incest taboo, a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriages between certain relatives.
The Conflict Paradigm highlights dimensions of inequality. This paradigm shows how sexuality both reflects patterns of social inequality and helps create them.
Source: Curry et al Sociology For The Twenty-First Century, Fifth Edition, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River,2008
A rite of passage is a ritual event that marks a person's progress from one status to another.
Rites of passage are often ceremonies surrounding events such as other milestones within puberty, coming of age, marriage, and death. Initiation ceremonies such as baptism, confirmation, and Bar Mitzvahs are considered important rites of passage for people of their respective religions
Apache Ceremony for Women
The sacred rituals performed in Na ii ees, or the Sunrise Ceremony, celebrate the transition into womanhood