D. Seckel, Univ. of Delaware
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Topics. RF pulses from Showers. Radiation from single particles. ZHS: 2 0.5. Sum over particles/Integrate over shower. Shower Front + Light Cone. Density of Excess Projected Track Length. Separation of Variables & Form Factor. Phase Factors and Rescaling FF. Most MC’s use this.

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D. Seckel, Univ. of Delaware



  • RF pulses from Showers

Radiation from single particles

Radiation from single particles

ZHS: 2


Sum over particles integrate over shower

Sum over particles/Integrate over shower

Shower Front + Light Cone

Density of Excess Projected Track Length

Separation of variables form factor

Separation of Variables & Form Factor

Phase factors and rescaling ff

Phase Factors and Rescaling FF

Most MC’s use this

Normalization and determination of f g y g z

Normalization and Determination of f, Gy, Gz

Avz zhs g4 later

AVZ, ZHS, (G4 later)

AVZ Use a Gaussian, and give the half-width of the Cerenkov cone

at 1 GHz as 3.72 ° for a 1 PeV (3.1 m) shower.

Determine Gz as FT of gaussian

Scaling vs avz

Scaling vs AVZ

Field calculation is integral

over shower profile

  • Adapted from Alvarez, Vazquez, Zas

  • “Full sim” is approx a

  • Blue – Gaussian for f(z), AVZ approx c for Gy

  • Red – Griessen for f(z)

Separation of shower profile

Separation of phase factors

Separation of form factors

With scaled frequencies

High frequency

High frequency



Scaling with energy and type

Scaling with energy and type

Scaling with medium

Scaling with medium

AVZ scaled


Scaling behavior

Scaling behavior

Single particle & shower signals

Includes LPM effect

to observer


fractional excess



Pulse shapes

Pulse shapes

Scaling model w shahid s g4 10 tev shower

Scaling model w/Shahid’s G4 10 TeV shower

Multiple showers

Multiple showers



Better shower profiles

Better shower profiles?

Acoustic in progress

Acoustic (in progress)

  • Same as radio except

    • scalar vs vector

    • total track length

    • v/c is smaller

    • attenuation

    • experiment bandwidth



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