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The Department of State A 3-D Perspective. Steven Goodwin Director Strategy & Operations Division Institute for National Strategic Studies Wednesday, July 15, 2009. Diplomats Defined.

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The department of state a 3 d perspective l.jpg

The Department of State A 3-D Perspective

Steven Goodwin

Director

Strategy & Operations Division

Institute for National Strategic Studies

Wednesday, July 15, 2009


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Diplomats Defined

“The function of a diplomatic envoy, since the 18th century, has been twofold – to observe and report to his government all which may concern it...and to affect the course of events in favor of his own country.”

“A diplomat is a man who always remembers a woman's birthday but never remembers her age.”  ~Robert Frost

“I must acknowledge, once and for all, that the purpose of diplomacy is to prolong a crisis.”  ~Star Trek, Mr. Spock


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Agenda

  • Overview of the Department of State (DOS)/USAID

  • Department of State/USAID vs. Defense (Venus and Mars?)

  • Overseas Operations

  • Crisis Response


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DOS in a Snapshot

  • U.S. maintains diplomatic relations with roughly 180 countries in the world today (North Korea, Somalia, and Iran not included)

  • U.S. has 260 diplomatic and consular missions abroad

  • About 11,000 FSOs staff those missions overseas and fill slots in the State Department


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The Foreign Service Officer

  • “Tested”

  • Generalist

  • Career-Oriented

  • Dedicated

  • Move every 2-3 years


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FSO “Cones”

  • Management Officers supervise the administrative and operational aspects of embassies and consulates

  • Consular Officers issue visas and protect Americans abroad

  • Economic Officers promote U.S. economic and trade interests abroad

  • Political Officers interpret events and situations related to U.S. interests

  • Public Diplomacy Officers manage public affairs and broaden understanding of American values and policies


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The Foreign Service Specialist

  • “Untested”

  • Technical Specialist

    • Security - RSO

    • Engineering

    • Office Management

    • Administration

  • Move every 2-3 years


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Civil Servants

  • “Untested”

  • ‘Fettered’ to Washington

  • Policy Expertise

  • Institutional Knowledge

  • Manage the Interagency Relationships in the Long Term


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DOS - Mission

Advance freedom for the benefit of the American people and the international community by helping to build and sustain a more democratic, secure, and prosperous world composed of well-governed states that respond to the needs of their people, reduce widespread poverty, and act responsibly within the international system.


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DOS Strategic Goals

  • Protect America

  • Advance Global Interests

  • Promote Mutual Understanding


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Protecting America

  • Countering Terrorism

  • Combating Proliferation

  • Homeland Security

  • Regional Stability

  • Visas – Immigration Security

  • International Crime

  • Economic Security

  • Assisting American Citizens Abroad


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Advancing Global Interests

  • Promote Freedom and Democracy

    • Foreign Assistance

  • Supporting Human Rights

    • Sanctioning Rogue Nations

  • Transnational Issues:

    • Health – e.g., HIV/AIDS

    • Environment, Science, & Technology

    • Refugees, Migration, & Population


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Promoting Mutual Understanding

  • Bilateral Diplomacy

  • Multilateral Diplomacy


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USAID

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent federal government agency that receives overall foreign policy guidance from the Secretary of State.

USAID supports long-term and equitable economic growth and advances U.S. foreign policy objectives by supporting:

  • economic growth, agriculture and trade;

  • global health; and,

  • democracy, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance.


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USAID & DoD

  • Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, & Humanitarian Assistance

    • Office of Military Affairs – policy coordination

    • Military Liaison Unit – operational coordination – (in the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance – OFDA)

    • USAID field offices


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FY 2008 OFDA Disasters

Declared Disasters: 81

DOD Disaster Response: 10 (~12%)

16


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State and Defense

Is it Venus and Mars?


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Defense

Active: 1,400,000

Reserve: 844,000

Civilian: 623,000

TOTAL: 2,867,000

State/USAID

Foreign Service: 11,000

Civil Service: 8,000

FSNs (Local): 10,000

TOTAL: 29,000

The Numbers Game Part 1:Personnel

OR

99 : 1

Does Not Include Contractors


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Defense

$664 Billion

State/USAID

$17 Billion

(additional $37 Billion for assistance programs)

Numbers Game Part 2: Operating Budgets

OR

39 : 1


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Defense

Does Things

Plans in Great Detail

Redundant Staffing

Strong Constituency

Long Term View

State

Talks About Doing

Plans…

Understaffed

No Constituency

Tyranny of the Urgent

Venus and Mars


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Defense

Overseas Base

Small Town

Gated Community

Hospital

Spouse Network

Injury

Medevac

Walter Reed (or akin)

Medical Retirement

State

Diplomatic Mission

A group of buildings

Guards at the Embassy

Nurse

?

Injury

Medevac

Your HMO

Medical Profile

Support Networks


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U.S. Diplomatic Missions

Civilian Agency Operations Abroad


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Embassy Missions

  • Manage diplomatic relations

  • Implement foreign policy goals: treaties; agreements; programs

  • Promote trade ties, U.S. exports

  • Assist U.S. citizens overseas

  • Confront global challenges (thugs, drugs, environment, WMD)

  • Report on & analyze POL/ECON events


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Organization

  • Embassy: Ambassador, represents the President (COM, Charge d’Affaires)

    • DCM (XO)

    • POL/ECON - COM

    • CONSULAR

    • ADMIN: RSO, Personnel, B&F

    • PD: PAO

    • MILGRP/DATT: Security Assistance, Intelligence

    • Others: DEA, INS, AID, AGR, Legatt


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Subordinate Missions

  • Consulate General: Consul General

  • Consulate: Principal Officer, Consul

  • Accountable to the Ambassador, but are independent in reporting to Washington



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State-DOD Crisis Cooperation

  • Conflict Resolution

    • Stability Operations

    • Peacekeeping Operations

  • Noncombatant Evacuation Operations

  • Humanitarian Crises (w/ USAID)

  • Terrorism Incidents


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Department of State: USG Overseas Crisis Manager

Department of State has primary responsibility for coordinating the USG response to non-military incidents that could have an adverse impact on the conduct of U.S. foreign relations

-- Presidential Directive/NSC-27

(PD-27) January 19, 1978


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DOS Crisis Response Process

Crisis

Assistant

Secretary

State Operations Center

Executive

Secretary


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Task Force Creation

Executive

Secretary

Assistant

Secretary

(Regional Bureau)

Task Force

Decision

Director,

Ops Center

TF Director (DAS - Level)

Participating Bureaus


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TYPICAL STATE DEPARTMENT TASK FORCE STRUCTURE

TF

DIRECTOR

(REGIONAL DAS )

TF

COORDINATOR

DEPUTY

COORDINATOR

POLICY

SUPERVISION

(REGIONAL BUREAU)

FAMILY

LIAISON

CONSULAR

AFFAIRS

MGT

POL-MIL

LEGISLATIVE

AFFAIRS

PUBLIC

AFFAIRS

DIPLOMATIC

SECURITY

STATE

INTEL

TF Mission: Expedite Communication

TASK FORCE STAFF AUGMENTED BASED ON NATURE OF CRISIS


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Task Force Coordination

NMCC

GCC

Decision

Makers

DOS

Task Force

The Embassy

Other

Agencies


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Civilian Response Corps

Mission: To lead, coordinate and institutionalize U.S. Government civilian capacity to prevent or prepare for post-conflict situations, and to help stabilize and reconstruct societies in transition from conflict or civil strife, so they can reach a sustainable path toward peace, democracy and a market economy.

  • Active Component: 250 – 48 hr string

  • Standby Component (Federal): 2,000 – 30 day string

  • Reserve Component (Private Sector): TBD – 45-60 day string

DOS, USAID, DOC, HHS, DOJ, DHS, USDA, & Treasury


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The Diplomat & The Warrior

“What’s the difference between the diplomat and the warrior?

They both do nothing, but the warrior gets up very early in the morning to do it with great discipline, while diplomats do it late in the afternoon, in utter confusion.”

LTG(ret.) Vernon Walters

former Ambassador to the UN & Germany


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Recommended Reading

“Defense is from Mars

State is from Venus,”

Col. Rickey L. Rife

Army War College, 1998



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