ECE 530 – Analysis Techniques for Large-Scale Electrical Systems. Lecture 1: Power System Overview. Prof. Hao Zhu Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [email protected] Acknowledgement: Prof. Overbye (taught ECE 530 in Fall’13).
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Watts = voltage x current for dc (W)
kW – 1 x 103 Watt
MW – 1 x 106 Watt
GW – 1 x 109 Watt
TW – 1 x 1012 Watt
Joule = 1 Watt-second (J)
kWh – Kilowatthour (3.6 x 106 J)
MWh – One MW for one hour
TWh – One million MWh
Btu – 1055 J; 1 MBtu=0.292 MWh
About 40% of our energy is consumed in the formof electricity, a percentagethat is gradually increasing.The vast majority of the non-fossil fuel energy is electric!
In 2012 we got about 1.4% of our energy from wind and 0.04% from solar (PV andsolar thermal)
About 84% Fossil Fuels
1 Quad = 293 billion kWh (actual), 1 Quad = 98 billion kWh (used, taking into account efficiency)
Source: EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2013, Electric Power Monthly, July 2013
Projections say we will still be 79% fossil in 2040!
Source: EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2014
Source: EIA International Energy Outlook, 2013
Former Soviet Union
Hydro: varies but usually water constrained
Solar: $120 to 180/MWh
Natural Gas: 8 to 10 times fuel cost in $/Mbtu (3-12)
Note, to get price in cents/kWh take price in $/MWh and divide by 10.
Marginal cost for natural gas fired electricity price
in $/MWh is about 7-10 times gas price
Value wasabout 280ppm in 1800; in 2013 it is 396 ppm
Baseline is 1961 to 1990 mean
With lots more uncertainty!
anthropogenic forcing only
natural +anthropogenic forcingCompelling Evidence?
natural (solar + volcanic) forcing alone does not account for warming in the past50 years
adding human influences (greenhouse
gases + sulfate aerosols) brings the models and observations into pretty close agreement
Source: Prof. Gross Fall 2013 ECE 333 Notes
The modelsshow rate of increase valuesof between0.18 to 0.4 C per decade.The rate from1975 to 2005was about 0.2 C per decade.